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# Part (a): Expression for the radius of the hoop

The solution involves converting the initial kinetic energy into gravitational potential energy at the maximum height h .

Step Derivation/Formula Reasoning
1 v = R\omega The velocity v of the hoop at the bottom is related to the angular velocity \omega and the radius R of the hoop by the no-slip condition.
2 KE_{\text{bottom}} = \frac{1}{2}m v^2 + \frac{1}{2} I \omega^2 Calculate the total kinetic energy at the bottom considering both translational ( \frac{1}{2}m v^2 ) and rotational ( \frac{1}{2} I \omega^2 ) kinetic energy.
3 I = m R^2 (for a hoop) The moment of inertia I of a hoop about its center is m R^2 .
4 KE_{\text{bottom}} = \frac{1}{2}m (R\omega)^2 + \frac{1}{2} m R^2 \omega^2 = m R^2 \omega^2 Substitute I and v into the kinetic energy expression and simplify.
5 PE_{\text{top}} = mgh Calculate the potential energy at the maximum height h using the mass m and gravitational acceleration g .
6 KE_{\text{bottom}} = PE_{\text{top}} Apply conservation of mechanical energy, assuming no energy loss to friction or air resistance.
7 m R^2 \omega^2 = mgh Set the expressions for kinetic and potential energy equal and simplify.
8 R = \sqrt{\frac{gh}{\omega^2}} Solve for R . This equation provides the radius in terms of the given quantities and constants.

# Part (b): Direction of friction while the hoop rolls up the ramp

Step Explanation
Reasoning The direction of friction must oppose the tendency of slipping. Whether the hoop slides up or down the ramp, it will always try to slide down the ramp. Thus, static friction acts in the direction of motion, up the ramp, to prevent the hoop from sliding back.

# Part (c): Direction of friction while the hoop rolls down the ramp

Step Explanation
Reasoning As explained in part (b), regardless of the direction the hoop travels on the ramp, friction will continue to point up the ramp. As the hoop rotates down the ramp, it want to slip down the ramp,  but is countered by static friction that points up the ramp.

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1. R = \sqrt{\frac{gh}{\omega^2}}
2. Up the ramp.
3. Up the ramp.

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KinematicsForces
\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2F = ma
v = v_i + atF_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2}
a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t}f = \mu N
R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g}
Circular MotionEnergy
F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r}KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2
a_c = \frac{v^2}{r}PE = mgh
KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f
MomentumTorque and Rotations
p = m v\tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta)
J = \Delta pI = \sum mr^2
p_i = p_fL = I \cdot \omega
Simple Harmonic Motion
F = -k x
T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}}
T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}}
ConstantDescription
gAcceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface
GUniversal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2
\mu_k and \mu_sCoefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion.
kSpring constant, in \text{N/m}
M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} Mass of the Earth
M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} Mass of the Moon
M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} Mass of the Sun
VariableSI Unit
s (Displacement)\text{meters (m)}
v (Velocity)\text{meters per second (m/s)}
a (Acceleration)\text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)}
t (Time)\text{seconds (s)}
m (Mass)\text{kilograms (kg)}
VariableDerived SI Unit
F (Force)\text{newtons (N)}
E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy)\text{joules (J)}
P (Power)\text{watts (W)}
p (Momentum)\text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)}
\tau (Torque)\text{newton meters (Nm)}
I (Moment of Inertia)\text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)}
f (Frequency)\text{hertz (Hz)}

General Metric Conversion Chart

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

1. Start with the given measurement: \text{5 km}

2. Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters: \text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}

3. Perform the multiplication: \text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}

4. Simplify to get the final answer: \boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}

Prefix

Symbol

Power of Ten

Equivalent

Pico-

p

10^{-12}

Nano-

n

10^{-9}

Micro-

µ

10^{-6}

Milli-

m

10^{-3}

Centi-

c

10^{-2}

Deci-

d

10^{-1}

(Base unit)

10^{0}

Deca- or Deka-

da

10^{1}

Hecto-

h

10^{2}

Kilo-

k

10^{3}

Mega-

M

10^{6}

Giga-

G

10^{9}

Tera-

T

10^{12}

1. Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
2. Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s2, and other 10 m/s2 for calculations.
3. Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
4. Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
5. Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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