# Part (a): Expression for the radius of the hoop

The solution involves converting the initial kinetic energy into gravitational potential energy at the maximum height h .

Step | Derivation/Formula | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | v = R\omega | The velocity v of the hoop at the bottom is related to the angular velocity \omega and the radius R of the hoop by the no-slip condition. |

2 | KE_{\text{bottom}} = \frac{1}{2}m v^2 + \frac{1}{2} I \omega^2 | Calculate the total kinetic energy at the bottom considering both translational ( \frac{1}{2}m v^2 ) and rotational ( \frac{1}{2} I \omega^2 ) kinetic energy. |

3 | I = m R^2 (for a hoop) | The moment of inertia I of a hoop about its center is m R^2 . |

4 | KE_{\text{bottom}} = \frac{1}{2}m (R\omega)^2 + \frac{1}{2} m R^2 \omega^2 = m R^2 \omega^2 | Substitute I and v into the kinetic energy expression and simplify. |

5 | PE_{\text{top}} = mgh | Calculate the potential energy at the maximum height h using the mass m and gravitational acceleration g . |

6 | KE_{\text{bottom}} = PE_{\text{top}} | Apply conservation of mechanical energy, assuming no energy loss to friction or air resistance. |

7 | m R^2 \omega^2 = mgh | Set the expressions for kinetic and potential energy equal and simplify. |

8 | R = \sqrt{\frac{gh}{\omega^2}} | Solve for R . This equation provides the radius in terms of the given quantities and constants. |

# Part (b): Direction of friction while the hoop rolls up the ramp

Step | Explanation |
---|---|

Reasoning | The direction of friction must oppose the tendency of slipping. Whether the hoop slides up or down the ramp, it will always try to slide down the ramp. Thus, static friction acts in the direction of motion, up the ramp, to prevent the hoop from sliding back. |

# Part (c): Direction of friction while the hoop rolls down the ramp

Step | Explanation |
---|---|

Reasoning | As explained in part (b), regardless of the direction the hoop travels on the ramp, friction will continue to point up the ramp. As the hoop rotates down the ramp, it want to slip down the ramp, but is countered by static friction that points up the ramp. |

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- Statistics

Advanced

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A centrifuge rotor rotating at 9200 rpm is shut off and is eventually brought uniformly to rest by a frictional torque of 1.20 N·m. If the mass of the rotor is 3.10 kg and it can be approximated as a solid cylinder of radius 0.0710 m, through how many revolutions will the rotor turn before coming to rest? The moment of inertia of a cylinder is give by \frac{1}{2}mr^2 .

- Rotational Kinematics

Intermediate

Mathematical

MCQ

A rod may freely rotate about an axis that is perpendicular to the rod and is along the plane of the page. The rod is divided into four sections of equal length of 0.2 m each, and four forces are exerted on the rod, as shown in the figure. Frictional forces are considered negligible. Which of the following describes an additional torque that must be applied in order to keep the rod from rotating?

- Rotational Motion, Torque

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Conceptual

MCQ

In both cases, a massless rod is supported by fulcrum, and a 200-kg hanging mass is suspended from the left end of the rod by a cable. A downward force *F* keeps the rod in rest. The rod in Case A is 50 cm long, and the rod in case B is 40 cm long (each rod is marked at 10-cm intervals). The magnitude of each vertical force F exerted on the rod will be

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MCQ

The moment of inertia of a solid cylinder about its axis is given by I = \frac{1}{2}mR^2. If this cylinder rolls without slipping, the ratio of its rotational kinetic energy to its translational kinetic energy is

- Rotational Energy, Rotational Motion

Advanced

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MCQ

The figure shows scale drawings of four objects, each of the same mass and uniform thickness, with the mass distributed uniformly. Which one has the greatest moment of inertia when rotated about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the drawing at point P?

- Rotational Inertia, Rotational Motion

- R = \sqrt{\frac{gh}{\omega^2}}
- Up the ramp.
- Up the ramp.

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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