AP Physics Unit

Unit 1 - Vectors and Kinematics

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

A javelin thrower standing at rest holds the center of the javelin behind her head, then accelerates it through a distance of 70 cm as she throws. She releases the 600 g javelin 2.0 m above the ground traveling at an angle of 30° above the horizontal. In this throw, the javelin hits the ground 54 m away. Find the following:

  1. (a) The acceleration of the javelin during the throw. (3 points)
  2. (b) The time it took for the javelin to hit the ground. (3 points)
  1. 436.9 m/s2
  2. 2.6 s
Step Formula Derivation Reasoning
1 v^2 = u^2 + 2as Kinematic equation for final velocity (v), with initial velocity (u = 0), acceleration (a), and displacement (s).
2 d = v_{0x} t Horizontal range equation with d as distance and t as time.
3 v_{0x} = v_0 \cos(\theta) Horizontal velocity component in terms of release velocity (v_0) and angle (\theta).
4 t = \frac{d}{v_0 \cos(\theta)} Time of flight in terms of horizontal range and horizontal velocity component.
5 v_{0y} = v_0 \sin(\theta) Vertical velocity component in terms of release velocity and angle.
6 0 = v_{0y} t – \frac{1}{2} g t^2 Vertical motion equation with v_{0y} as initial vertical velocity and g as gravitational acceleration.
7 t = \frac{2v_{0y}}{g} Solve for time of flight t.
8 v_0 = \frac{d}{t \cos(\theta)} Substitute t into horizontal range equation to solve for v_0.
9 a = \frac{v_0^2}{2s} Use the found value of v_0 to solve for acceleration a.
10 v_0 = 23.98 , \text{m/s}, t = 2.60 , \text{s}, a = 410.58 , \text{m/s}^2 Final values calculated from the equations above.

Acceleration: \boxed{a = 410.58 , \text{m/s}^2}

Time: \boxed{t = 2.60 , \text{s}}

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  1. 436.9 m/s2
  2. 2.6 s

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KinematicsForces
\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2F = ma
v = v_i + atF_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2}
a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t}f = \mu N
R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} 
Circular MotionEnergy
F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r}KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2
a_c = \frac{v^2}{r}PE = mgh
 KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f
MomentumTorque and Rotations
p = m v\tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta)
J = \Delta pI = \sum mr^2
p_i = p_fL = I \cdot \omega
Simple Harmonic Motion
F = -k x
T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}}
T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}}
ConstantDescription
gAcceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface
GUniversal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2
\mu_k and \mu_sCoefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion.
kSpring constant, in \text{N/m}
M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} Mass of the Earth
M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} Mass of the Moon
M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} Mass of the Sun
VariableSI Unit
s (Displacement)\text{meters (m)}
v (Velocity)\text{meters per second (m/s)}
a (Acceleration)\text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)}
t (Time)\text{seconds (s)}
m (Mass)\text{kilograms (kg)}
VariableDerived SI Unit
F (Force)\text{newtons (N)}
E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy)\text{joules (J)}
P (Power)\text{watts (W)}
p (Momentum)\text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)}
\omega (Angular Velocity)\text{radians per second (rad/s)}
\tau (Torque)\text{newton meters (Nm)}
I (Moment of Inertia)\text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)}
f (Frequency)\text{hertz (Hz)}

General Metric Conversion Chart

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters. 

  1. Start with the given measurement: \text{5 km}

  2. Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters: \text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}

  3. Perform the multiplication: \text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}

  4. Simplify to get the final answer: \boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}

Prefix

Symbol

Power of Ten

Equivalent

Pico-

p

10^{-12}

Nano-

n

10^{-9}

Micro-

µ

10^{-6}

Milli-

m

10^{-3}

Centi-

c

10^{-2}

Deci-

d

10^{-1}

(Base unit)

10^{0}

Deca- or Deka-

da

10^{1}

Hecto-

h

10^{2}

Kilo-

k

10^{3}

Mega-

M

10^{6}

Giga-

G

10^{9}

Tera-

T

10^{12}

  1. Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
  2. Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s2, and other 10 m/s2 for calculations.
  3. Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
  4. Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later. 
  5. Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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