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UBQ Credits

Step | Derivation/Formula | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

Initial Information |
||

0 | – Airplane speed: \( v_p = 97.5 \, \text{m/s} \) – Climb angle: \( \theta = 50.0^\circ \) – Altitude at release: \( h = 732 \, \text{m} \) – Acceleration due to gravity: \( g = 9.8 \, \text{m/s}^2 \) |
Gathered all given data for the problem. |

1 | Resolve initial velocity into components:
– Horizontal component: – Vertical component: |
Calculated initial horizontal (\( v_{0x} \)) and vertical (\( v_{0y} \)) velocities of the package. |

2 | Set up the vertical motion equation to find time \( t \):
\( y = y_0 + v_{0y} t – \dfrac{1}{2} g t^2 \) |
Established the equation for vertical motion to solve for time. |

3 | Rearrange the equation into a quadratic form:
\( -\dfrac{1}{2} g t^2 + v_{0y} t + h = 0 \) |
Prepared the quadratic equation to solve for \( t \). |

4 | Calculate the discriminant \( D \):
\( D = b^2 – 4ac \) |
Computed the discriminant to use in the quadratic formula. |

5 | Solve for time \( t \) using the quadratic formula:
\( t = \dfrac{-b \pm \sqrt{D}}{2a} \) |
Found the time of flight \( t \) for the package. |

6 | (a) Calculate the horizontal distance traveled:
\( x = v_{0x} t \) |
Determined the horizontal distance from the release point to impact. |

7 | Calculate the final vertical velocity \( v_y \):
\( v_y = v_{0y} – g t \) |
Computed the vertical component of velocity just before impact. |

8 | Calculate the magnitude of the final velocity \( v \):
\( v = \sqrt{v_{x}^2 + v_{y}^2} \) |
Found the speed of the package just before impact. |

9 | (b) Determine the angle \( \phi \) of the velocity vector:
\( \tan \phi = \dfrac{|v_y|}{v_x} = \dfrac{141.28}{62.73} \approx 2.252 \) |
Calculated the angle of the velocity vector relative to the ground. |

Just ask: "Help me solve this problem."

- Statistics

Intermediate

Mathematical

MCQ

A plane, 220 meters high, is dropping a supply crate to an island below. It is traveling with a horizontal velocity of 150 m/s. At what horizontal distance must the plane drop the supply crate for it to land on the island? Use [katex] g = 9.81 \, m/s^2[/katex].

- Projectiles

Intermediate

Conceptual

MCQ

Which of the following statements about the acceleration due to gravity is TRUE?

- 1D Kinematics, Linear Forces, Projectiles

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

One end of a spring is attached to a solid wall while the other end just reaches to the edge of a horizontal, frictionless tabletop, which is a distance [katex] h [/katex] above the floor. A block of mass M is placed against the end of the spring and pushed toward the wall until the spring has been compressed a distance [katex] x [/katex]. The block is released and strikes the floor a horizontal distance [katex] D [/katex] from the edge of the table. Air resistance is negligible.

Derive an expressions for the following quantities only in terms of [katex] M, x, D, h, [/katex] and any constants.

- Energy, Projectiles

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

Suppose the water at the top of Niagara Falls has a horizontal speed of \( 2.7 \, \text{m/s} \) just before it cascades over the edge of the falls. At what vertical distance below the edge does the velocity vector of the water point downward at a \( 75^\circ \) angle below the horizontal?

- Projectiles

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

A baseball is thrown at an angle of 25° relative to the ground at a speed of 23.0 m/s. The ball is caught 42.0 m from the thrower.

- Projectiles

(a) \( 1379.29 \, \text{m} \)

(b) \( 66.1^\circ \) below the horizontal.

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\(\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2\) | \(F = ma\) |

\(v = v_i + at\) | \(F_g = \frac{G m_1 m_2}{r^2}\) |

\(v^2 = v_i^2 + 2a \Delta x\) | \(f = \mu N\) |

\(\Delta x = \frac{v_i + v}{2} t\) | \(F_s =-kx\) |

\(v^2 = v_f^2 \,-\, 2a \Delta x\) |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

\(F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r}\) | \(KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2\) |

\(a_c = \frac{v^2}{r}\) | \(PE = mgh\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{r}{g}}\) | \(KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f\) |

\(W = Fd \cos\theta\) |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

\(p = mv\) | \(\tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta)\) |

\(J = \Delta p\) | \(I = \sum mr^2\) |

\(p_i = p_f\) | \(L = I \cdot \omega\) |

Simple Harmonic Motion | Fluids |
---|---|

\(F = -kx\) | \(P = \frac{F}{A}\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}}\) | \(P_{\text{total}} = P_{\text{atm}} + \rho gh\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}}\) | \(Q = Av\) |

\(x(t) = A \cos(\omega t + \phi)\) | \(F_b = \rho V g\) |

\(a = -\omega^2 x\) | \(A_1v_1 = A_2v_2\) |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

[katex]g[/katex] | Acceleration due to gravity, typically [katex]9.8 , \text{m/s}^2[/katex] on Earth’s surface |

[katex]G[/katex] | Universal Gravitational Constant, [katex]6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2[/katex] |

[katex]\mu_k[/katex] and [katex]\mu_s[/katex] | Coefficients of kinetic ([katex]\mu_k[/katex]) and static ([katex]\mu_s[/katex]) friction, dimensionless. Static friction ([katex]\mu_s[/katex]) is usually greater than kinetic friction ([katex]\mu_k[/katex]) as it resists the start of motion. |

[katex]k[/katex] | Spring constant, in [katex]\text{N/m}[/katex] |

[katex] M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Earth |

[katex] M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Moon |

[katex] M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

[katex]s[/katex] (Displacement) | [katex]\text{meters (m)}[/katex] |

[katex]v[/katex] (Velocity) | [katex]\text{meters per second (m/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]a[/katex] (Acceleration) | [katex]\text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)}[/katex] |

[katex]t[/katex] (Time) | [katex]\text{seconds (s)}[/katex] |

[katex]m[/katex] (Mass) | [katex]\text{kilograms (kg)}[/katex] |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

[katex]F[/katex] (Force) | [katex]\text{newtons (N)}[/katex] |

[katex]E[/katex], [katex]PE[/katex], [katex]KE[/katex] (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | [katex]\text{joules (J)}[/katex] |

[katex]P[/katex] (Power) | [katex]\text{watts (W)}[/katex] |

[katex]p[/katex] (Momentum) | [katex]\text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]\omega[/katex] (Angular Velocity) | [katex]\text{radians per second (rad/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]\tau[/katex] (Torque) | [katex]\text{newton meters (Nm)}[/katex] |

[katex]I[/katex] (Moment of Inertia) | [katex]\text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)}[/katex] |

[katex]f[/katex] (Frequency) | [katex]\text{hertz (Hz)}[/katex] |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`[katex]\text{5 km}[/katex]`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`[katex]\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}[/katex]`

Perform the multiplication:

`[katex]\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}[/katex]`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`[katex]\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}[/katex]`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | [katex]10^{-12}[/katex] | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | [katex]10^{-9}[/katex] | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | [katex]10^{-6}[/katex] | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | [katex]10^{-3}[/katex] | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | [katex]10^{-2}[/katex] | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | [katex]10^{-1}[/katex] | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | [katex]10^{0}[/katex] | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | [katex]10^{1}[/katex] | 10 |

Hecto- | h | [katex]10^{2}[/katex] | 100 |

Kilo- | k | [katex]10^{3}[/katex] | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | [katex]10^{6}[/katex] | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | [katex]10^{9}[/katex] | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | [katex]10^{12}[/katex] | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- 1. Some answers may vary by 1% due to rounding.
- Gravity values may differ: \(9.81 \, \text{m/s}^2\) or \(10 \, \text{m/s}^2\).
- Variables can be written differently. For example, initial velocity (\(v_i\)) may be \(u\), and displacement (\(\Delta x\)) may be \(s\).
- Bookmark questions you can’t solve to revisit them later
- 5. Seek help if you’re stuck. The sooner you understand, the better your chances on tests.

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