Step | Formula / Calculation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | v_{x} = v_{0} \cos(\theta), v_{y} = v_{0} \sin(\theta) | Decomposing the initial velocity into horizontal (v_{x}) and vertical (v_{y}) components. |

2 | v_{x} = 12 \cos(35^\circ) \approx 9.83 , \text{m/s}, v_{y} = 12 \sin(35^\circ) \approx 6.88 , \text{m/s} | Calculating the horizontal and vertical components of the initial velocity. |

3 | y = y_{1} – y_{0} = 3.05 – 2.4 = 0.65 , \text{m} | Calculating the height difference between the hoop and the player. |

4 | 0.65 = 6.88 \cdot t – \frac{1}{2} \cdot 9.81 \cdot t^{2} | Substituting values into the user-provided vertical motion equation to find the time when the ball reaches the height of the hoop. |

5 | t \approx 1.3 s | Solving the equation for time, taking the positive root as the physical solution. |

6 | x = v_{x} \cdot t | Horizontal distance formula, where x is the distance and v_{x} is the constant horizontal velocity. |

7 | x = 9.83 \cdot 1.3 \approx 12.8 m | Calculating the horizontal distance required for the basketball to reach the hoop. |

Phy can also check your working. Just snap a picture!

- Statistics

Advanced

Conceptual

MCQ

*t _{A}*,

- Projectiles

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 4.40 N and a total mass of 1.00 kg . It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 2.10 m from the edge of a 2.10 m drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge. Assuming that the thrust of the rocket present for the entire time of travel, how far does the puck land from the base of the table?

- Linear Forces, Projectiles

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

Measurements made in 1910 indicate that the common flea is an impressive jumper, given its size. Assume that a flea’s initial speed is 2.1 m/s, and that it leaps at an angle of 21° with respect to the horizontal. The jump lasts 0.16 s.

- Projectiles

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

GQ

In the absence of air resistance, a projectile is launched from, returns to ground level and has a range of 23 m. Suppose the launch speed is doubled, and the projectile is fired at the same angle above the ground. What is the new range?

- Projectiles

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A baseball rolls off a 0.70 m high desk and strikes the floor 0.25 m away from the base of the desk. How fast was the ball rolling?

- Projectiles

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A ball is kicked horizontally off a 20 m tall cliff at a speed of 11 m/s. What is the final velocity of the ball right before it hits the ground?

- Projectiles

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

GQ

A rifle is used to shoot a target twice, using identical cartridges. The first time, the rifle is aimed parallel to the ground and directly at the center of the bull’s-eye. The bullet strikes the target at a distance of H_{A} below the center, however. The second time, the rifle is similarly aimed, but from twice the distance from the target. This time the bullet strikes the target at a distance of H_{B} below the center. Find the ratio Н_{B}/ Н_{А}.

- Projectiles

Intermediate

Proportional Analysis

GQ

- Projectiles

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

FRQ

On a distant planet, golf is just as popular as it is on earth. A golfer tees off and drives the ball 3.5 times as far as he would have on earth, given the same initial velocities on both planets. The ball is launched at a speed of 45 m/s at an angle of 29° above the horizontal. When the ball lands, it is at the same level as the tee. On the distant planet find:

- Projectiles

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

- Projectiles

12.77 m

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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