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Step | Derivation/Formula | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

A1 | [katex] T – Mg = \frac{Mv^2}{L} [/katex] | This is the force equilibrium equation at the bottom point. [katex] T [/katex] is the tension in the string, [katex] M [/katex] is the mass of the ball, [katex] g [/katex] is the acceleration due to gravity, [katex] v [/katex] is the velocity of the ball, and [katex] L [/katex] is the length of the string. |

A2 | [katex] T = 3Mg [/katex] | The tension at the bottom is given to be three times the weight of the ball. |

A3 | [katex] 3Mg – Mg = \frac{Mv^2}{L} [/katex] | Substituting the tension value into the equilibrium equation. |

A4 | [katex] v = \sqrt{2gL} [/katex] | Simplifying the equation for [katex] v [/katex], observe [katex] M [/katex] cancels out. This is velocity at any given point around the circle. |

A5 | [katex] F_{\text{centripetal}} = \frac{Mv^2}{L} [/katex] | At the top, we can use the velocity calculated in the previous step to find the centripetal force required to keep the ball moving in the circle. |

A6 | [katex] 2mg [/katex] | Substitute in the equation for velocity (from step A4) so that the final equation is in terms of [katex] M \, g \, L [/katex] |

B1 | [katex] v_{\text{top}} = \sqrt{v^2 – 4gL} [/katex] | Using conservation of energy. [katex] KE_{\text{bottom}} + PE_{\text{bottom}} = KE_{\text{top}} + PE_{\text{top}} [/katex]. The velocity at the top is found by noting the potential energy difference between top and bottom. Simplify by substituting [katex] v [/katex] from A4. |

B2 | [katex] v_{\text{top}} = \sqrt{2gL – 4gL} [/katex] | [katex] = \sqrt{-2gL} \rightarrow [/katex] which is zero since [katex] 2gL > 4gL [/katex] |

C1 | [katex] t = \sqrt{\frac{4L}{g}} [/katex] | Ball falls freely under gravity and has no initial vertical velocity, so [katex] \delta y = \frac{1}{2}gt^2 [/katex]; solving for [katex] t [/katex] gives the time to fall a distance [katex] L [/katex]. Note that the displacement from the top to the bottom is twice the radius of the circle or [katex] 2L [/katex]. |

D1 | [katex] \Delta x = v_0t [/katex] | The horiztontal distance traveled by any projectile is the product of the horiztonal speed and the time in air. |

D2 | [katex] \sqrt{2gL} \times \sqrt{\frac{4L}{g}} [/katex] | Substitute in velocity from Step A4 and time from step C1 |

D3 | [katex] \sqrt{8}L [/katex] | Simplify |

(a) The net force on the ball at the top is [katex] 2Mg [/katex], downward.

(b) The velocity of the ball at the top is [katex] v = \sqrt{2gL} [/katex].

(c) The time it takes to reach the ground is [katex] \sqrt{\frac{4L}{g}} [/katex].

(d) The horizontal distance traveled is [katex] \sqrt{8}L [/katex]

Just ask: "Help me solve this problem."

- Statistics

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

A neighbor’s child wants to go to a carnival to experience the wild rides. The neighbor is worried about safety because one of the rides looks particularly dangerous. She knows that you have taken physics and so asks you for advice.

The ride in question has a 4 kg chair which hangs freely from a 10 m long chain attached to a pivot on the top of a tall tower. When the child enters the ride, the chain is hanging straight down. The child is then attached to the chair with a seat belt and shoulder harness. When the ride starts up, the chain rotates about the tower. Soon the chain reaches its maximum speed and remains rotating at that speed, which corresponds to one rotation about the tower every 3 seconds.

When you ask the operator, he says the ride is perfectly safe. He demonstrates this by sitting in the stationary chair. The chain creaks but holds, and he weighs 90 kg.

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

FRQ

An eagle is flying horizontally at 6.0 m/s with a fish in its claws. It accidentally drops the fish.

- Projectiles

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A 2.2 kg ball on the end of a 0.35 m long string is moving in a vertical circle. At the bottom of the circle, its speed is 5.3 m/s. Find the tension in the string.

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

Refer to the diagram above and solve all equations in-terms of R, M, k, and constants.

- Circular Motion, Energy, Momentum

Intermediate

Conceptual

GQ

Suppose you are a passenger traveling in car along a road that bends to the left. Why will you feel like you are being thrown against the door. What causes this force?

- Circular Motion

(a) [katex] 2Mg [/katex], downward.

(b) [katex] v = \sqrt{2gL} [/katex].

(c) [katex] \sqrt{\frac{4L}{g}} [/katex].

(d) [katex] \sqrt{8}L [/katex]

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\(\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2\) | \(F = ma\) |

\(v = v_i + at\) | \(F_g = \frac{G m_1 m_2}{r^2}\) |

\(v^2 = v_i^2 + 2a \Delta x\) | \(f = \mu N\) |

\(\Delta x = \frac{v_i + v}{2} t\) | \(F_s =-kx\) |

\(v^2 = v_f^2 \,-\, 2a \Delta x\) |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

\(F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r}\) | \(KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2\) |

\(a_c = \frac{v^2}{r}\) | \(PE = mgh\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{r}{g}}\) | \(KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f\) |

\(W = Fd \cos\theta\) |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

\(p = mv\) | \(\tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta)\) |

\(J = \Delta p\) | \(I = \sum mr^2\) |

\(p_i = p_f\) | \(L = I \cdot \omega\) |

Simple Harmonic Motion | Fluids |
---|---|

\(F = -kx\) | \(P = \frac{F}{A}\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}}\) | \(P_{\text{total}} = P_{\text{atm}} + \rho gh\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}}\) | \(Q = Av\) |

\(x(t) = A \cos(\omega t + \phi)\) | \(F_b = \rho V g\) |

\(a = -\omega^2 x\) | \(A_1v_1 = A_2v_2\) |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

[katex]g[/katex] | Acceleration due to gravity, typically [katex]9.8 , \text{m/s}^2[/katex] on Earth’s surface |

[katex]G[/katex] | Universal Gravitational Constant, [katex]6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2[/katex] |

[katex]\mu_k[/katex] and [katex]\mu_s[/katex] | Coefficients of kinetic ([katex]\mu_k[/katex]) and static ([katex]\mu_s[/katex]) friction, dimensionless. Static friction ([katex]\mu_s[/katex]) is usually greater than kinetic friction ([katex]\mu_k[/katex]) as it resists the start of motion. |

[katex]k[/katex] | Spring constant, in [katex]\text{N/m}[/katex] |

[katex] M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Earth |

[katex] M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Moon |

[katex] M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

[katex]s[/katex] (Displacement) | [katex]\text{meters (m)}[/katex] |

[katex]v[/katex] (Velocity) | [katex]\text{meters per second (m/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]a[/katex] (Acceleration) | [katex]\text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)}[/katex] |

[katex]t[/katex] (Time) | [katex]\text{seconds (s)}[/katex] |

[katex]m[/katex] (Mass) | [katex]\text{kilograms (kg)}[/katex] |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

[katex]F[/katex] (Force) | [katex]\text{newtons (N)}[/katex] |

[katex]E[/katex], [katex]PE[/katex], [katex]KE[/katex] (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | [katex]\text{joules (J)}[/katex] |

[katex]P[/katex] (Power) | [katex]\text{watts (W)}[/katex] |

[katex]p[/katex] (Momentum) | [katex]\text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]\omega[/katex] (Angular Velocity) | [katex]\text{radians per second (rad/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]\tau[/katex] (Torque) | [katex]\text{newton meters (Nm)}[/katex] |

[katex]I[/katex] (Moment of Inertia) | [katex]\text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)}[/katex] |

[katex]f[/katex] (Frequency) | [katex]\text{hertz (Hz)}[/katex] |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`[katex]\text{5 km}[/katex]`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`[katex]\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}[/katex]`

Perform the multiplication:

`[katex]\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}[/katex]`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`[katex]\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}[/katex]`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | [katex]10^{-12}[/katex] | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | [katex]10^{-9}[/katex] | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | [katex]10^{-6}[/katex] | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | [katex]10^{-3}[/katex] | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | [katex]10^{-2}[/katex] | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | [katex]10^{-1}[/katex] | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | [katex]10^{0}[/katex] | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | [katex]10^{1}[/katex] | 10 |

Hecto- | h | [katex]10^{2}[/katex] | 100 |

Kilo- | k | [katex]10^{3}[/katex] | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | [katex]10^{6}[/katex] | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | [katex]10^{9}[/katex] | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | [katex]10^{12}[/katex] | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- 1. Some answers may vary by 1% due to rounding.
- Gravity values may differ: \(9.81 \, \text{m/s}^2\) or \(10 \, \text{m/s}^2\).
- Variables can be written differently. For example, initial velocity (\(v_i\)) may be \(u\), and displacement (\(\Delta x\)) may be \(s\).
- Bookmark questions you can’t solve to revisit them later
- 5. Seek help if you’re stuck. The sooner you understand, the better your chances on tests.

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