Step | Derivation/Formula | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | F = \frac{mv^2}{r} | This is the centripetal force formula, where F is the force exerted on the moon, m is the mass of the moon, v is the orbital velocity of the moon, and r is the radius of the orbit. |

2 | v = \frac{2\pi r}{T} | The orbital velocity v can be expressed in terms of the orbital circumference 2\pi r and the orbital period T . This equation rearranges the definition of velocity to suit circular motion. |

3 | F = \frac{m\left(\frac{2\pi r}{T}\right)^2}{r} | Combine equations by substituting velocity from step 2 into the equation in step 1. |

4 | F = \frac{4\pi^2mr}{T^2} | Simplify the equation. |

5 | T = 2\pi \times \sqrt{ \frac{mr}{F}} | Solve the equation for T, the period of the moon. |

6 | T = 2\pi \times \sqrt{ \frac{(2.2 \times 10^{21} \, \text{kg})(1.5 \times 10^8 \, \text{m})}{1.1 \times 10^{19} \, \text{N}}} | Plug in all the given values. |

7 | T = \approx 1.088 \times 10^6 \, \text{seconds} | Calculate T . |

8 | \boxed{T = \approx 12.6 \, \text{days}} | Convert to days, given that 1 day = 86400 seconds. |

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- Statistics

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

A satellite circling Earth completes each orbit in 132 minutes.

- Circular Motion, Gravitation

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

A rock is whirled on the end of a string in a horizontal circle of radius R with a constant period T. If the radius of the circle is reduced to R/3, while the period remains T, what happens to the centripetal acceleration (a_{c}) of the rock?

- Circular Motion

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

In 2014, the European Space Agency placed a satellite in orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and then landed a probe on the surface. The actual orbit was elliptical, but we can approximate it as a 50 km diameter circular orbit with a period of 11 days.

- Circular Motion, Gravitation

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

The International Space Station has a mass of 4.2 x10^{5} kg and orbits Earth at a distance of 4.0 x10^{2} km above the surface. Earth has a radius of 6.37 x10^{6} m, and mass of 5.97 x10^{24} kg. Calculate the following:

- Circular Motion, Gravitation

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

On a harsh winter day, a 1500 kg vehicle takes a circular banked exit ramp (radius R = 150 m; banking angle of 10 degrees) at a speed of 30 mph, since the speed limit is 35 mph. However, the exit ramp is completely iced up (= frictionless). To make matters worse, a wind is blowing parallel to the ramp in a downward direction. The wind exerts a force of 3000 N. Under these conditions, can the driver continue to follow a safe horizontal circle on the exit ramp and stay below the speed limit? To convert mph into m/s use 1 mi = 1607 m and 1 hr is 3600 s.

- Circular Motion, Friction

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

A 250 newton centripetal force acts on a car moving at a constant speed in a horizontal circle. If the same force is applied, but the radius is made smaller, what happens to the speed *v* and the frequency *f* of the car?

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A person’s back is against the inner wall of spinning cylinder with no support under their feet. If the radius is R, find an expression for the minimum angular speed so the person does not slide down the wall. The coefficient of static friction is µ_{s}.

Note: If you haven’t studied angular velocity \omega yet, just find the linear velocity *v. *

- Circular Motion

Intermediate

Mathematical

MCQ

A pendulum consists of a ball of mass m suspended at the end of a massless cord of length L . The pendulum is drawn aside through an angle of 60° with the vertical and released. At the low point of its swing, the speed of the pendulum ball is

- Centripetal Acceleration, Circular Motion, Energy, Pendulums, Simple Harmonic Motion

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

A linear spring of negligible mass requires a force of 18.0 N to cause its length to increase by 1.0 cm. A sphere of mass 75.0 g is then attached to one end of the spring. The distance between the center of the sphere M and the other end P of the un-stretched spring is 25.0 cm. Then the sphere begins rotating at constant speed in a horizontal circle around the center P. The distance P and M increases to 26.5 cm.

- Circular Motion, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

An 80 kg person sits in a swing that goes around in a circle. The chain connecting the swing to the center of the ride is 8 m long and it makes and angle of 40° with the horizontal. What is the speed of the person going around in a circle?

- Circular Motion

T = \approx 12.6 \, \text{days}

Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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