Objective: Determine the acceleration of the blocks and the tension in the cord given the masses, coefficients of friction, and incline angle given:

- m_A = m_B = 5.0 , \text{kg}
- \mu_A = 0.20
- \mu_B = 0.30
- \theta = 32^\circ
- g = 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 (acceleration due to gravity)

**Part a: Calculate the acceleration of the blocks**

Step | Formula Derivation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | F_{\text{gravity, parallel A}} = m_A g \sin(\theta) | Parallel component of gravitational force for A. |

2 | F_{\text{gravity, parallel B}} = m_B g \sin(\theta) | Parallel component of gravitational force for B. |

3 | F_{\text{friction A}} = \mu_A m_A g \cos(\theta) | Frictional force on A. |

4 | F_{\text{friction B}} = \mu_B m_B g \cos(\theta) | Frictional force on B. |

5 | F_{\text{net A}} = F_{\text{gravity, parallel A}} – F_{\text{friction A}} | Net force on A. |

6 | F_{\text{net B}} = F_{\text{gravity, parallel B}} – F_{\text{friction B}} | Net force on B. |

7 | F_{\text{net}} = F_{\text{net B}} – F_{\text{net A}} | Total net force on the system. |

8 | a = \frac{F_{\text{net}}}{m_A + m_B} | Acceleration of the system. |

Plug in the given values:

Step | Formula Derivation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

9 | a = \frac{(m_B g \sin(\theta) – \mu_B m_B g \cos(\theta)) – (m_A g \sin(\theta) – \mu_A m_A g \cos(\theta))}{m_A + m_B} | Substitute the net forces from steps 5 and 6. |

10 | a = \frac{(5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot \sin(32^\circ) – 0.30 \cdot 5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot \cos(32^\circ)) – (5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot \sin(32^\circ) – 0.20 \cdot 5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot \cos(32^\circ))}{5 + 5} | Substitute given values. |

11 | a = \frac{(5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot (\sin(32^\circ) – 0.30 \cdot \cos(32^\circ))) – (5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot (\sin(32^\circ) – 0.20 \cdot \cos(32^\circ)))}{10} | Simplify the expression. |

12 | a = \frac{5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot (0.10 \cdot \cos(32^\circ))}{10} | Combine like terms. |

13 | a = \frac{9.8 \cdot (0.10 \cdot \cos(32^\circ))}{2} | Simplify further. |

**Part b: Calculate the tension in the cord**

Step | Formula Derivation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | T = m_A \cdot a + F_{\text{friction A}} | Tension equals the force to accelerate block A plus frictional force on A. |

2 | F_{\text{friction A}} = \mu_A \cdot m_A \cdot g \cdot \cos(\theta) | Frictional force opposing the motion of block A. |

3 | T = m_A \cdot a + \mu_A \cdot m_A \cdot g \cdot \cos(\theta) | Substitute the frictional force into the tension formula. |

4 | T = m_A \cdot \left( \frac{F_{\text{net}}}{m_A + m_B} \right) + \mu_A \cdot m_A \cdot g \cdot \cos(\theta) | Substitute the expression for $a$ from the acceleration calculation. |

5 | T = 5 \cdot \left( \frac{(5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot \sin(32^\circ) – 0.30 \cdot 5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot \cos(32^\circ)) – (5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot \sin(32^\circ) – 0.20 \cdot 5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot \cos(32^\circ))}{10} \right) + 0.20 \cdot 5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot \cos(32^\circ) | Insert given values for masses, coefficients of friction, gravitational acceleration, and angle. |

6 | T = 5 \cdot \left( \frac{5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot (0.10 \cdot \cos(32^\circ))}{10} \right) + 0.20 \cdot 5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot \cos(32^\circ) | Simplify the expression for the net force component. |

7 | T = \frac{5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot (0.10 \cdot \cos(32^\circ))}{2} + 0.20 \cdot 5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot \cos(32^\circ) | Further simplify the tension formula. |

8 | T = \frac{5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot 0.10 \cdot \cos(32^\circ)}{2} + 0.20 \cdot 5 \cdot 9.8 \cdot \cos(32^\circ) | Combine like terms for the final tension calculation. |

9 | T \approx 17.66 , \text{N} | Calculate the numeric value for tension. |

Phy can also check your working. Just snap a picture!

- Statistics

Beginner

Conceptual

MCQ

A car travels to right at constant velocity. The net force on the car is

- Linear Forces

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A 2,000 kg car collides with a stationary 1,000 kg car. Afterwards, they slide 6 m before coming to a stop. The coefficient of friction between the tires and the road is 0.7. Find the initial velocity of the 2,000 kg car before the collision?

- 1D Kinematics, Energy, Linear Forces, Momentum

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A 6 kg cube rests against a compressed spring with a force constant of 1,800 N/m, initially compressed by 0.3 m. Upon release, the cube slides on a horizontal surface with a kinetic friction coefficient of 0.12 for 3 m, then ascends a 12° slope, stopping after 4.5 m. Determine the coefficient of kinetic friction on the slope.

- Energy, Inclines, Linear Forces

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A horizontal 300 N force pushes a 40 kg object across a horizontal 10 meter frictionless surface. After this, the block slides up a 20° incline. Assuming the incline has a coefficient of kinetic friction of 0.4, how far along the incline with the object slide?

- 1D Kinematics, Friction, Inclines, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Conceptual

MCQ

A truck of mass 3500 kg hits the back of a small car of mass 1400 kg. Which car exerted more force on the other and why?

- Linear Forces

- .42 m/s
^{2} - 17.66

By continuing you (1) agree to our Terms of Sale and Terms of Use and (2) consent to sharing your IP and browser information used by this site’s security protocols as outlined in our Privacy Policy.

Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

The most advanced version of Phy. Currently 50% off, for early supporters.

per month

Billed Monthly. Cancel Anytime.

Trial –> Phy Pro

- Unlimited Messages
- Unlimited Image Uploads
- Unlimited Smart Actions
- Unlimited UBQ Credits
- 30 --> 300 Word Input
- 3 --> 15 MB Image Size Limit
- 1 --> 3 Images per Message
- 200% Memory Boost
- 150% Better than GPT
- 75% More Accurate, 50% Faster
- Mobile Snaps
- Focus Mode
- No Ads

A quick explanation

UBQ credits are specifically used to grade your FRQs and GQs.

You can still view questions and see answers without credits.

Submitting an answer counts as 1 attempt.

Seeing answer or explanation counts as a failed attempt.

Lastly, check your average score, across every attempt, in the top left.

MCQs are 1 point each. GQs are 1 point. FRQs will state points for each part.

Phy can give partial credit for GQs & FRQs.

Phy sees everything.

It customizes responses, explanations, and feedback based on what you struggle with. Try your best on every question!

Understand you mistakes quicker.

For GQs and FRQs, Phy provides brief feedback as to how you can improve your answer.

Aim to increase your understadning and average score with every attempt!

10 Free Credits To Get You Started

*Phy Pro members get unlimited credits