Step | Calculation/Analysis | Description |
---|---|---|

1 | T_{\text{max, stationary}} = m_{\text{operator}} \times g | Maximum stationary tension with the operator’s weight. m_{\text{operator}} = 90 , \text{kg}, g = 9.81 , \text{m/s}^2. |

2 | v = \frac{2\pi \times L}{T} | Rotation speed calculation. L = 10 , \text{m}, T = 3 , \text{s}. |

3.1 | T_{\text{horizontal}} = F_{\text{centripetal}} | Horizontal component of tension equals centripetal force. |

3.2 | F_{\text{centripetal}} = \frac{m_{\text{child}} \times v^2}{r} | Centripetal force formula. m_{\text{child}} = 25 , \text{kg}. |

3.3 | r = L \sin(\theta) | Effective radius related to the angle $θ$. |

3.4 | F_{\text{centripetal}} = \frac{m_{\text{child}} \times v^2}{L \sin(\theta)} | Substitute r in centripetal force formula. |

3.5 | T_{\text{vertical}} = m_{\text{child}} \times g | Vertical component of tension equals child’s weight. |

3.6 | \tan(\theta) = \frac{T_{\text{horizontal}}}{T_{\text{vertical}}} | Relation between tension components. |

3.7 | \tan(\theta) = \frac{m_{\text{child}} \times v^2 / (L \sin(\theta))}{m_{\text{child}} \times g} | Substitute velocity and radius in the tangent formula. |

3.8 | cos\theta = \frac{9}{4\pi^2} | Final, simplified equation |

3.9 | \theta = \approx 76.8 | Approximate value of the angle to the vertical of any rider (angle does not depend of mass). |

4 | T_{\text{ride}}cos\theta = mg | Solve for tension to get a total tension of ~ 1290 N for when the child sits in the seat. Remember the to add the mass of the seat to the child. |

5 | Safety Assessment | Tension in the chain is greater while child is rotating than when operator is sitting in it stationary, indicating the chain might break when the child is rotating in it. |

M

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- Statistics

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

Two wires are tied to the 500 g sphere shown below. The sphere revolves in a horizontal circle at a constant speed of 7.2 m/s. What is the tension in the upper wire? What is the tension in the lower wire?

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

A car is safely negotiating an unbanked circular turn at a speed of 17 m/s on dry road. However, a long wet patch in the road appears and decreases the maximum static frictional force to one-fifth of its dry-road value. If the car is to continue safely around the curve, by what factor would the it need to change the original velocity?

- Circular Motion

Intermediate

Conceptual

MCQ

Which of the following best explains why astronauts experience weightlessness while orbiting the earth?

- Circular Motion, Gravitation

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A 5.0 g coin is placed 15 cm from the center of a turntable. The coin has coefficients of static and kinetic friction of µ_{s} = 0.80 and µ_{k} = 0.50. The turntable slowly speeds up to 60 rpm. Does the coin slide off the turntable?

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

On a harsh winter day, a 1500 kg vehicle takes a circular banked exit ramp (radius R = 150 m; banking angle of 10 degrees) at a speed of 30 mph, since the speed limit is 35 mph. However, the exit ramp is completely iced up (= frictionless). To make matters worse, a wind is blowing parallel to the ramp in a downward direction. The wind exerts a force of 3000 N. Under these conditions, can the driver continue to follow a safe horizontal circle on the exit ramp and stay below the speed limit? To convert mph into m/s use 1 mi = 1607 m and 1 hr is 3600 s.

- Circular Motion, Friction

No it is not safe for the child. Based on the rotational speed, the child would be raised to an angle of ~77° from the initial vertical position. At this point the tension in the chain (~1290 N), while rotating, is considerable greater than the maximum force of tension (~920 N) the chain can with stand.

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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