The minimum velocity can be found by balancing the forces acting on the person. The normal force *N *between the person and the wall provides the necessary centripetal force to keep the person in circular motion.

Step | Formula Derivation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | F_{\text{centripetal}} = \frac{mv^2}{R} | Centripetal force formula, where m is mass, v is velocity, and R is the radius. |

2 | F_{\text{centripetal}} = F_{\text{normal}} | The normal force exerted by the wall provides the centripetal force. |

3 | f_s = \mu_s N | Static friction force formula, where \mu_s is the coefficient of static friction and N is the normal force. |

4 | f_s \geq mg | The static friction force must be equal to or greater than the gravitational force to prevent sliding. |

5 | \mu_s F_{\text{normal}} \geq mg | Substituting f_s with \mu_s N . |

6 | \mu_s \frac{mv^2}{R} \geq mg | Substituting F_{\text{normal}} with \frac{mv^2}{R} . |

7 | v \geq \sqrt{\frac{gR}{\mu_s}} | Solving for the minimum velocity v . |

8 | \omega \geq \frac{\sqrt{\frac{gR}{\mu_s}}}{R} | Convert linear velocity to angular velocity ( \omega ), where \omega = \frac{v}{R} . |

9 | \omega \geq \sqrt{\frac{g}{\mu_s R}} | Simplify the expression for angular velocity. |

The minimum linear velocity for the person not to slide down is v \geq \sqrt{\frac{gR}{\mu_s}} , and the corresponding minimum angular velocity is \omega \geq \sqrt{\frac{g}{\mu_s R}} .

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- Statistics

Intermediate

Conceptual

GQ

Suppose you are a passenger traveling in car along a road that bends to the left. Why will you feel like you are being thrown against the door. What causes this force?

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A new car is tested on a 230-m-diameter track. If the car speeds up at a steady 1.4 \, m/s^2, how long after starting is the magnitude of its centripetal acceleration equal to the tangential acceleration?

- Centripetal Acceleration, Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

The diagram above shows a marble rolling down an incline, the bottom part of which has been bent into a loop. The marble is released from point A at a height of 0.80 m above the ground. Point B is the lowest point and point C the highest point of the loop. The diameter of the loop is 0.35 m. The mass of the marble is 0.050 kg. Friction forces and any gain in kinetic energy due to the rotating of the marble can be ignored. When answering the following questions, consider the marble when it is at point C.

- Circular Motion, Energy

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A car moves at constant speed in a circle of radius 75 m on a horizontal road. The coefficient of static friction is 0.62. Find the maximum speed the car can go without sliding.

- Circular Motion

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A 2.00 x10^{2} g block on a 50.0 cm long string swings in a circle on a horizontal, frictionless table at 75.0 rpm. What is the speed of block? What is the tension in the string?

- Circular Motion

\omega \geq \sqrt{\frac{g}{\mu_s R}} or v \geq \sqrt{\frac{gR}{\mu_s}}

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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