Step | Derivation/Formula | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | m = 110 \, \text{kg} | Total mass of the person and bicycle is the sum of their individual masses. |

2 | d = 7 \, \text{m} | Distance rolled down the hill before stopping. |

3 | \theta = 25^\circ | Angle of inclination of the hill. |

4 | g = 9.8 \, \text{m/s}^2 | Acceleration due to gravity. |

5 | \mu_k = 0.65 | Coefficient of kinetic friction. |

6 | \Delta PE = mgh = mgd \sin(\theta) | Calculate potential energy lost over the 7 m descent using the height change formula h = d \sin(\theta) . |

7 | h = 7 \sin(25^\circ) | Calculate the vertical distance descended. |

8 | \Delta PE = 110 \times 9.8 \times 7 \sin(25^\circ) | Substitute known values into the potential energy formula. |

9 | \Delta PE \approx 2793.24 \, \text{J} | Amount of energy needed to be transformed into friction, to bring the bike to a complete stop. |

9.5 | Calculate the maximum possible energy that friction can generate. | Use the W = Fd as shown below |

10 | f_k = \mu_k (mg \cos(\theta)) | Calculate the force of kinetic friction acting on the bicycle and rider while moving down the slope. |

11 | f_k = 0.65 \times (110 \times 9.8 \times \cos(25^\circ)) | Substitute into the force of friction formula. |

12 | f_k \approx 627.89 \, \text{N} | Calculating the force using approximate value of cosine function. |

13 | W = f_k \times d | Work done by friction is the product of the force of friction and the distance over which it acts. |

14 | W = 627.89 \times 7 | Substitute the values into the work formula. |

15 | W \approx 4395.23 \, \text{J} | Calculating the total work done by friction. |

16 | Conclusion | The work done by friction exceeds the energy needed to bring the bike to a complete halt. Only 2793.24 J of frictional energy is transformed from potential energy to bring to bike to rest. |

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- Statistics

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A 2,000 kg car collides with a stationary 1,000 kg car. Afterwards, they slide 6 m before coming to a stop. The coefficient of friction between the tires and the road is 0.7. Find the initial velocity of the 2,000 kg car before the collision?

- 1D Kinematics, Energy, Linear Forces, Momentum

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

A 0.0350 kg bullet moving horizontally at 425 m/s embeds itself into an initially stationary 0.550 kg block.

- Energy, Momentum

Intermediate

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

Two balls are dropped from the roof of a building. One ball has twice as massive as the other and air resistance is negligible. Just before hitting the ground, the more massive ball has ball ____ the kinetic energy of the less massive ball.

- Energy

Advanced

Mathematical

MCQ

A bullet moving with an initial speed of v_o strikes and embeds itself in a block of wood which is suspended by a string, causing the bullet and block to rise to a maximum height h . Which of the following statements is true of the collision.

- Energy, Momentum, Pendulums

Intermediate

Conceptual

MCQ

A rubber ball bounces off of a wall with an initial speed v and reverses its direction so its speed is v right after the bounce. As a result of this bounce, which of the following quantities of the ball are conserved?

- Energy, Momentum

2793.24 Joules

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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