Step | Derivation/Formula | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | F_{N} = mg \cos(\theta) | The normal force (F_{N}) on an inclined plane is given by the weight component perpendicular to the surface, which depends on the weight of the object (mg) and the angle (\theta) of the incline. It is calculated using the cosine of the angle. |

2 | F_{N} < mg | Since \cos(\theta) ranges between 0 and 1, the normal force is always less than the full weight of the car as long as \theta > 0. This shows that on an inclined plane, the normal force is reduced in magnitude compared to the gravitational force acting on the car. |

3 | (b) The normal force must be less than the car’s weight. |
This is the correct answer since the normal force on the incline is less than the weight of the car due to the angle with respect to the vertical. |

Phy can also check your working. Just snap a picture!

- Statistics

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

A train consists of 50 cars, each of which has a mass of 6.1 x 10^{3} kg. The train has an acceleration of 8.0 × 10^{-2} m/s^{2}?. Ignore friction and determine the tension in the coupling at the following places:

- Linear Forces, Multi-Body Systems

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A horizontal 300 N force pushes a 40 kg object across a horizontal 10 meter frictionless surface. After this, the block slides up a 20° incline. Assuming the incline has a coefficient of kinetic friction of 0.4, how far along the incline with the object slide?

- 1D Kinematics, Friction, Inclines, Linear Forces

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

A vehicle is moving at a speed of 12.3 m/s on a decline when the brakes of all four wheels are fully applied, causing them to lock. The slope of the decline forms an angle of 18.0 degrees with the horizontal plane. Given that the coefficient of kinetic friction between the tires and the road surface is 0.650.

- Energy, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

A 10kg box is pushed to the right by an unknown force at an angle of 25° below the horizontal while a friction force of 50 N acts on the box as well. The box accelerates from rest and travels a distance of 4 m where it is moving at 3 m/s. Solve the following without the use of energy.

- 1D Kinematics, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A 1kg and unknown mass (M) hangs on opposite sides of the pulley suspended from the ceiling. When the masses are released, M accelerates down at 5 m/s². What is M?

- Atwood Machine, Linear Forces

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

A pulley system consists of two blocks of mass 5 kg and 10 kg, connected by a rope of negligible mass that passes over a pulley of radius 0.1 meters and mass 2 kg. The pulley is free to rotate about its axis. The system is released from rest, and the block of mass 10 kg starts to move downwards. Assuming that the coefficient of kinetic friction between the pulley and the rope is 0.2, and neglecting air resistance, determine

- Atwood Machine, Rotational Motion

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A horizontal spring with spring constant 162 N/m is compressed 50 cm and used to launch a 3 kg box across a frictionless, horizontal surface. After the box travels some distance, the surface becomes rough. The coefficient of kinetic friction of the box on the rough surface is 0.2. Find the total distance the box travels before stopping.

- 1D Kinematics, Energy, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A person is trying to judge whether a picture (mass = 1.42 kg) is properly positioned by temporarily pressing it against a wall. The pressing force is perpendicular to the wall. The coefficient of static friction between the picture and the wall is 0.62. What is the minimum amount of pressing force that must be used?

- Linear Forces

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A 1000 kg car is traveling east at 20m/s when it collides perfectly inelastically with a northbound 2000 kg car traveling at 15m/s. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.9, how far, and at what angle do the two cars skid before coming to a stop?

- 1D Kinematics, Friction, Momentum

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A 0.5 mm wire made of carbon and manganese can just barely support the weight of a 70.0 kg person that is holding on vertically. Suppose this wire is used to lift a 45.0 kg load. What maximum vertical acceleration can be achieved without breaking the wire?

- Elevators, Linear Forces

By continuing you (1) agree to our Terms of Sale and Terms of Use and (2) consent to sharing your IP and browser information used by this site’s security protocols as outlined in our Privacy Policy.

Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

The most advanced version of Phy. Currently 50% off, for early supporters.

per month

Billed Monthly. Cancel Anytime.

Trial –> Phy Pro

- Unlimited Messages
- Unlimited Image Uploads
- Unlimited Smart Actions
- 30 --> 300 Word Input
- 3 --> 15 MB Image Size Limit
- 1 --> 3 Images per Message
- 200% Memory Boost
- 150% Better than GPT
- 75% More Accurate, 50% Faster
- Mobile Snaps
- Focus Mode
- No Ads