Step | Formula / Calculation | Reasoning | Result |
---|---|---|---|

1 | F_{\text{horizontal}} = F \cdot \cos(\theta) | Horizontal component of the applied force | 101.325 N |

2 | F_{\text{vertical}} = F \cdot \sin(\theta) | Vertical component of the applied force | 89.713 N |

3 | F_{\text{net, horizontal}} = F_{\text{horizontal}} – F_{\text{friction}} | Net force in the horizontal direction | 15.325 N |

4 | a = \frac{F_{\text{net, horizontal}}}{m} | Acceleration using Newton’s second law | 0.511 m/s² |

5 | d = 0.5 \cdot a \cdot t^2 | Kinematic equation for distance (initial velocity is 0) | 2.781 m |

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- Statistics

Beginner

Mathematical

GQ

A 1100 kg car accelerates from 32 m/s to 8.0 m/s in 4.0 sec. What amount of force was needed to slow it down?

- 1D Kinematics, Linear Forces

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A 1 kg and unknown mass *M* hangs on opposite sides of the pulley suspended from the ceiling. When the masses are released, *M* accelerates down at 5 m/s^{2}. Find the value of M.

- Atwood Machine, Linear Forces

Beginner

Conceptual

MCQ

A car travels to right at constant velocity. The net force on the car is

- Linear Forces

Intermediate

Conceptual

MCQ

Two identical metal balls are being held side by side at the top of a ramp. Alex lets one ball, 4, start rolling down the hill. A few seconds later, Alex’ partner, Bob starts the second ball, B, down the hill by giving it a push. Ball B rolls down the hill along a line parallel to the path of the first ball and passes it. At the instant ball B passes ball A:

- 1D Kinematics

Intermediate

Conceptual

MCQ

An object travels along a path shown above, with changing velocity as indicated by vectors A and B. Which vector best represents the net acceleration of the object from time t_A to t_B?

- 1D Kinematics

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

A rocket is sent to shoot down an invading spacecraft that is hovering at an altitude of 1500 meters. The rocket is launched with an initial velocity of 180 m/s. Find the following:

- 1D Kinematics

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A block of mass m is accelerated across a rough surface by a force of magnitude F exerted at an angle θ above the horizontal. The frictional force between the block and surface is ƒ. Find the acceleration of the block (as an equation).

- Inclines, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

MCQ

A block rests on a flat plane inclined at an angle of 30° with respect to the horizontal. What is the minimum coefficient of friction necessary to keep the block from sliding?

- Inclines, Linear Forces

Beginner

Conceptual

MCQ

The displacement x of an object moving in one dimension is shown above as a function of time t. The acceleration of this object must be

- 1D Kinematics, Motion Graphs

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

A gun can fire a bullet to height *h* when fired straight up. If the same gun is pointed at an angle of 45° from the vertical, what is the new maximum height of the projectile?

- 1D Kinematics, Projectiles

2.78 m

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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