Which pair of graphs represents the same 1- dimensional motion?

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- Statistics

Advanced

Conceptual

MCQ

Toy car W travels across a horizontal surface with an acceleration of a_w after starting from rest. Toy car Z travels across the same surface toward car W with an acceleration of a_z , after starting from rest. Car W is separated from car Z by a distance d . Which of the following pairs of equations could be used to determine the location on the horizontal surface where the two cars will meet, and why?

- 1D Kinematics

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

A student is running at her top speed of 5.0 m/s to catch a bus, which is stopped at the bus stop. When the student is still 40.0 m from the bus, it starts to pull away, moving with a constant acceleration of 0.170 m/s.

- 1D Kinematics

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A person whose weight is 4.92 × 10^{2} N is being pulled up vertically by a rope from the bottom of a cave that is 35.2 m deep. The maximum tension that the rope can withstand without breaking is 592 N. What is the shortest time, starting from rest, in which the person can be brought out of the cave?

- 1D Kinematics, Linear Forces

Advanced

Conceptual

MCQ

- 1D Kinematics, Motion Graphs

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

The alarm at a fire station rings and a 79.34-kg fireman, starting from rest, slides down a pole to the floor below (a distance of 4.20 m). Just before landing, his speed is 1.36 m/s. What is the magnitude of the kinetic frictional force exerted on the fireman as he slides down the pole?

- 1D Kinematics, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Conceptual

MCQ

In which of the following is the rate of change of the particle’s momentum zero?

- Momentum, Motion Graphs

Intermediate

Mathematical

MCQ

- 1D Kinematics, Motion Graphs

Intermediate

Conceptual

MCQ

An object travels along a path shown above, with changing velocity as indicated by vectors A and B. Which vector best represents the net acceleration of the object from time t_A to t_B?

- 1D Kinematics

Beginner

Mathematical

GQ

A 1100 kg car accelerates from 32 m/s to 8.0 m/s in 4.0 sec. What amount of force was needed to slow it down?

- 1D Kinematics, Linear Forces

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

*v* versus time *t* for an object in linear motion. Which of the following is a possible graph of position *x* versus time *t* for this object?

- 1D Kinematics, Motion Graphs

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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