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Step | Derivation/Formula | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | [katex] KE_{\text{initial}} = \frac{1}{2}m_{b}v_0^2 [/katex] | Initial kinetic energy of the bullet, where [katex] m_b [/katex] is the mass of the bullet and [katex] v_0 [/katex] is the velocity of the bullet. |

2 | [katex] p_{\text{initial}} = m_b v_0 [/katex] | Initial momentum of the bullet, calculated using momentum formula, [katex] p = mv [/katex]. |

3 | [katex] p_{\text{after-collision}} = (m_b + m_w) v [/katex] | After the collision, using the conservation of momentum, the total system (bullet + block) momentum is equal to the initial momentum. |

4 | [katex] m_b v_0 = (m_b + m_w) v [/katex] | This step shows the conservation of momentum applied to the system. Solving for [katex] v [/katex] gives the speed immediately after the collision. |

5 | [katex] KE_{\text{after-collision}} = \frac{1}{2}(m_b + m_w)v^2 [/katex] | The kinetic energy of the bullet and block system immediately after the collision. |

6 | [katex] PE_{\text{max}} = m_gh [/katex] | Potential energy when the block and bullet are at the maximum height [katex] h [/katex], with [katex] m_g = (m_b + m_w)g [/katex] being the combined mass times the acceleration due to gravity. |

7 | [katex] KE_{\text{after-collision}} = PE_{\text{max}} [/katex] | According to the conservation of mechanical energy, assuming no other forces like air resistance are acting, the kinetic energy immediately after collision equals the potential energy at the maximum height. |

8 | [katex] m_g h = \frac{1}{2} (m_b + m_w) v^2 [/katex] | Simplifying above equations to match potential and kinetic energies. |

9 | Analyze statement (e) | Careful analyzation shows that the initial kinetic energy of the bullet is converted through an inelastic collision and ultimately equals the potential energy at the maximum height, assuming no energy lost to heat, etc. |

10 | Conclusion | Statement (e) “The initial kinetic energy of the bullet before the collision is equal to the potential energy of the bullet and block when they reach the maximum height [katex] h [/katex]” is correct. |

Just ask: "Help me solve this problem."

- Statistics

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

A 0.0350 kg bullet moving horizontally at 425 m/s embeds itself into an initially stationary 0.550 kg block.

- Energy, Momentum

Advanced

Conceptual

MCQ

While traveling in its elliptical orbit around the Sun, Mars gains speed during the part of the orbit where it is getting closer to the Sun. Which of the following can be used to explain this gain in speed?

- Angular Momentum, Energy, Gravitation, Rotational Motion, Torque

Advanced

Conceptual

MCQ

A kickball is rolled by the pitcher at a speed of 10 m/s and it is kicked by another student. The kickball deforms a little during the kick, and then rebounds with a velocity of 15 m/s as its shape restores to a perfect sphere. Select all that must be true about the kickball and the kicking foot system.

- Energy, Momentum

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A 2 kg model rocket is launched with a thrust force of 275 N and reaches a height of 90 m, moving at 150 m/s at its peak. What is the average air resistance force acting on the rocket during its ascent?

- Energy

Advanced

Conceptual

MCQ

A fisherman is standing in the back of his small fishing boat (the mass of the fisherman is the same as the mass of the boat) and he is a few meters from shore. He is done fishing so he starts walking towards the shore so he can get off the boat. What happens to the boat and the fisherman? Select all that apply and assume there is no friction between the boat and the water.

- Momentum

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\(\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2\) | \(F = ma\) |

\(v = v_i + at\) | \(F_g = \frac{G m_1 m_2}{r^2}\) |

\(v^2 = v_i^2 + 2a \Delta x\) | \(f = \mu N\) |

\(\Delta x = \frac{v_i + v}{2} t\) | \(F_s =-kx\) |

\(v^2 = v_f^2 \,-\, 2a \Delta x\) |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

\(F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r}\) | \(KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2\) |

\(a_c = \frac{v^2}{r}\) | \(PE = mgh\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{r}{g}}\) | \(KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f\) |

\(W = Fd \cos\theta\) |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

\(p = mv\) | \(\tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta)\) |

\(J = \Delta p\) | \(I = \sum mr^2\) |

\(p_i = p_f\) | \(L = I \cdot \omega\) |

Simple Harmonic Motion | Fluids |
---|---|

\(F = -kx\) | \(P = \frac{F}{A}\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}}\) | \(P_{\text{total}} = P_{\text{atm}} + \rho gh\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}}\) | \(Q = Av\) |

\(x(t) = A \cos(\omega t + \phi)\) | \(F_b = \rho V g\) |

\(a = -\omega^2 x\) | \(A_1v_1 = A_2v_2\) |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

[katex]g[/katex] | Acceleration due to gravity, typically [katex]9.8 , \text{m/s}^2[/katex] on Earth’s surface |

[katex]G[/katex] | Universal Gravitational Constant, [katex]6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2[/katex] |

[katex]\mu_k[/katex] and [katex]\mu_s[/katex] | Coefficients of kinetic ([katex]\mu_k[/katex]) and static ([katex]\mu_s[/katex]) friction, dimensionless. Static friction ([katex]\mu_s[/katex]) is usually greater than kinetic friction ([katex]\mu_k[/katex]) as it resists the start of motion. |

[katex]k[/katex] | Spring constant, in [katex]\text{N/m}[/katex] |

[katex] M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Earth |

[katex] M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Moon |

[katex] M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

[katex]s[/katex] (Displacement) | [katex]\text{meters (m)}[/katex] |

[katex]v[/katex] (Velocity) | [katex]\text{meters per second (m/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]a[/katex] (Acceleration) | [katex]\text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)}[/katex] |

[katex]t[/katex] (Time) | [katex]\text{seconds (s)}[/katex] |

[katex]m[/katex] (Mass) | [katex]\text{kilograms (kg)}[/katex] |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

[katex]F[/katex] (Force) | [katex]\text{newtons (N)}[/katex] |

[katex]E[/katex], [katex]PE[/katex], [katex]KE[/katex] (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | [katex]\text{joules (J)}[/katex] |

[katex]P[/katex] (Power) | [katex]\text{watts (W)}[/katex] |

[katex]p[/katex] (Momentum) | [katex]\text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]\omega[/katex] (Angular Velocity) | [katex]\text{radians per second (rad/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]\tau[/katex] (Torque) | [katex]\text{newton meters (Nm)}[/katex] |

[katex]I[/katex] (Moment of Inertia) | [katex]\text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)}[/katex] |

[katex]f[/katex] (Frequency) | [katex]\text{hertz (Hz)}[/katex] |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`[katex]\text{5 km}[/katex]`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`[katex]\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}[/katex]`

Perform the multiplication:

`[katex]\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}[/katex]`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`[katex]\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}[/katex]`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | [katex]10^{-12}[/katex] | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | [katex]10^{-9}[/katex] | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | [katex]10^{-6}[/katex] | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | [katex]10^{-3}[/katex] | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | [katex]10^{-2}[/katex] | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | [katex]10^{-1}[/katex] | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | [katex]10^{0}[/katex] | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | [katex]10^{1}[/katex] | 10 |

Hecto- | h | [katex]10^{2}[/katex] | 100 |

Kilo- | k | [katex]10^{3}[/katex] | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | [katex]10^{6}[/katex] | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | [katex]10^{9}[/katex] | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | [katex]10^{12}[/katex] | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- 1. Some answers may vary by 1% due to rounding.
- Gravity values may differ: \(9.81 \, \text{m/s}^2\) or \(10 \, \text{m/s}^2\).
- Variables can be written differently. For example, initial velocity (\(v_i\)) may be \(u\), and displacement (\(\Delta x\)) may be \(s\).
- Bookmark questions you can’t solve to revisit them later
- 5. Seek help if you’re stuck. The sooner you understand, the better your chances on tests.

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