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A speed skater goes around a turn that has a radius of 31 m. The skater has a speed of 14 m/s and experiences a centripetal force of 460 N. What is the mass of the skater?

72.76 kg

Explanation

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Step | Formula / Calculation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | F_{\text{centripetal}} = \frac{mv^2}{r} | Centripetal force formula. |

2 | v = 14 , \text{m/s}, , r = 31 , \text{m}, , F_{\text{centripetal}} = 460 , \text{N} | Given values for speed, radius, and centripetal force. |

3 | m = \frac{F_{\text{centripetal}} \times r}{v^2} | Rearranging the centripetal force formula to solve for mass. |

4 | m = \frac{460 \times 31}{14^2} | Substituting the given values into the equation. |

5 | m = \frac{460 \times 31}{196} | Simplifying the denominator. |

6 | m = \frac{14260}{196} | Calculating the numerator. |

7 | m \approx 72.76 , \text{kg} | Final calculation of the mass. |

The mass of the skater is approximately 72.76 kg.

- Statistics

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Note: If you haven’t studied angular velocity \omega yet, just find the linear velocity *v. *

Find the escape speed from a planet of mass 6.89 x 10^{25} kg and radius 6.2 x 10^{6} m.

*R* and is vertical. In terms of *R *and constants, find the minimum height *h *above the bottom of the loop the block must start from so it makes it around the loop.

A satellite circling Earth completes each orbit in 132 minutes.

- Find the altitude of the satellite.
- What is the value of g at the location of this satellite?

^{6} m.

_{c}) of the rock?

The ultracentrifuge is an important tool for separating and analyzing proteins. Because of the enormous centripetal accelerations, the centrifuge must be carefully balanced, with each sample matched by a sample of identical mass on the opposite side. Any difference in the masses of opposing samples creates a net force on the shaft of the rotor, potentially leading to a catastrophic failure of the apparatus. Suppose a scientist makes a slight error in sample preparation and one sample has a mass 10 mg larger than the opposing sample.

If the samples are 12 cm from the axis of the rotor and the ultracentrifuge spins at 60000 rpm, what is the magnitude of the net force on the rotor due to the unbalanced samples?

A 1.00 kg mass is attached to a 0.800 m long string and spun in a vertical circle. The mass completes 2.00 revolution in 1.00 s.

- What is the tension in the string when the mass is at the bottom of the circle?
- What is the tension in the string when the mass is at the top of the circle?

_{s} = 0.80 and µ_{k} = 0.50. The turntable slowly speeds up to 60 rpm. Does the coin slide off the turntable?

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A conical pendulum is formed by attaching a ball of mass m to a string of length L, then allowing the ball to move in a horizontal circle of radius R.

- Find an expression for the tension in the string.
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- The gravitational force between Earth and the ISS.
- The orbital speed of the ISS.
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72.76 kg

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i \cdot t + \frac{1}{2} a \cdot t^2 | F = m \cdot a |

v = v_i + a \cdot t | F_g = \frac{G \cdot m_1 \cdot m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu \cdot N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \cdot \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{m \cdot v^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} m \cdot v^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = m \cdot g \cdot h |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m \cdot v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum m \cdot r^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k \cdot x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kg·m/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (N·m)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kg·m}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!