Step | Formula / Calculation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | F_{\text{centripetal}} = \frac{mv^2}{r} | Centripetal force formula. |

2 | v = 14 , \text{m/s}, , r = 31 , \text{m}, , F_{\text{centripetal}} = 460 , \text{N} | Given values for speed, radius, and centripetal force. |

3 | m = \frac{F_{\text{centripetal}} \times r}{v^2} | Rearranging the centripetal force formula to solve for mass. |

4 | m = \frac{460 \times 31}{14^2} | Substituting the given values into the equation. |

5 | m = \frac{460 \times 31}{196} | Simplifying the denominator. |

6 | m = \frac{14260}{196} | Calculating the numerator. |

7 | m \approx 72.76 , \text{kg} | Final calculation of the mass. |

The mass of the skater is approximately 72.76 kg.

Phy can also check your working. Just snap a picture!

- Statistics

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A communications satellite orbits the Earth at an altitude of 35,000 km above the Earth’s surface. Take the mass of Earth to be 6 \times 10^{24} \text{ kg} the the radius of Earth to be 6.4 \times 10^6 \text{ m}. What is the satellite’s velocity?

- Centripetal Acceleration, Circular Motion, Gravitation, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Conceptual

MCQ

A compressed spring mounted on a disk can project a small ball. When the disk is not rotating, as shown in the top view above, the ball moves radially outward. The disk then rotates in a counterclockwise direction as seen from above, and the ball is projected outward at the instant the disk is in the position shown above. Which of the following best shows the subsequent path of the ball relative to the ground?

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

MCQ

A roller coaster car crosses the top of a circular loop-the-loop at twice the critical speed. What is the ratio of the normal force to the gravitational force?

- Circular Motion

Beginner

Mathematical

GQ

A child has a toy tied to the end of a string and whirls the toy at constant speed in a horizontal circular path of radius *R*. The toy completes each revolution of its motion in a time period *T*. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the toy (in terms of *T*, *R*, and *g*)?

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

A car is safely negotiating an unbanked circular turn at a speed of 17 m/s on dry road. However, a long wet patch in the road appears and decreases the maximum static frictional force to one-fifth of its dry-road value. If the car is to continue safely around the curve, by what factor would the it need to change the original velocity?

- Circular Motion

72.76 kg

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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