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Question:

If an object is moving, is it possible for the net force acting on it to be zero?

**Answer**

Yes, it is possible.

Explanation | Example |
---|---|

When an object moves with constant velocity (including zero acceleration), the net force acting on it is zero. This is in accordance with Newton’s First Law of Motion, which states that an object in motion will remain in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by a net external force. | A 10 kg object sliding on a frictionless surface at a constant speed. |

Question:

If the acceleration of an object is zero, are no forces acting on it?

**Answer:**

No, it’s not necessarily true that no forces are acting on it.

Explanation | Example |
---|---|

Zero acceleration means that the net force is zero, but it does not imply that no forces are acting on the object. It could be that multiple forces are acting on it, but they are balanced, resulting in no net force and thus no acceleration. | A 10 kg object at rest on a horizontal surface with gravitational force downward balanced by the normal force upward. |

Question:

Only one force acts on an object. Can the object have zero acceleration?

**Answer:**

No, if only one force acts on an object, the object cannot have zero acceleration.

Explanation | Example |
---|---|

If a single unbalanced force acts on an object, it will cause the object to accelerate in the direction of the force, in accordance with Newton’s Second Law of Motion. | A 10 kg object in free fall under the influence of gravity alone. |

Question:

Only one force acts on an object. Can it have zero velocity?

**Answer:**

Yes, it can have zero velocity at a specific moment.

Explanation | Example |
---|---|

An object can have zero velocity at a particular instant, especially at the turning point in its motion, even if a single force is acting on it. However, it will not remain at zero velocity if the force continues to act. | A 10 kg object thrown vertically upward will have zero velocity at the highest point of its trajectory, before starting to fall back down. |

Each of these examples demonstrates different aspects of Newton’s Laws of Motion and the relationship between forces, velocity, and acceleration.

Just ask: "Help me solve this problem."

- Statistics

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A sled moves with constant speed down a sloped hill. The angle of the hill with respect to the horizontal is 10.0°. What is the coefficient of kinetic friction between the sled and the hill’s surface?

- Inclines, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Conceptual

MCQ

Three identical blocks are being pulled or pushed across a rough horizontal surface by force of identical magnitude F, as shown in the drawing below. Rank the kinetic frictional forces that act on the blocks from smallest to greatest.

- Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

A 2 kg ball is swung in a vertical circle. The length of the string the ball is attached to is 0.7 m. It takes 0.4 s for the ball to travel one revolution ( assume ball travels at constant speed).

- Circular Motion, Tension

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

Determine the force needed to push a 150 kg body up a smooth 30° incline with an acceleration of 6 m/s^{2}.

- Inclines, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

A rescue helicopter lifts a 79 kg person straight up by means of a cable. The person has an upward acceleration of 0.70 m/s^{2} and is lifted through a distance of 11 m.

- Energy, Linear Forces

- Yes. An car that is traveling at a constant speed will have a net force of 0.
- No. Right now your acceleration is 0, but you still have gravitational and normal forces acting on your body.
- No. It cannot have 0 acceleration. A singular force is a net force, thus will always cause an acceleration, like a booster propelling a rocket in space.
- Yes. Throwing a ball vertically will show that the ball reaches 0 velocity at the top, while only one force (force of gravity) act on it throughout the motion of the ball.

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\(\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2\) | \(F = ma\) |

\(v = v_i + at\) | \(F_g = \frac{G m_1 m_2}{r^2}\) |

\(v^2 = v_i^2 + 2a \Delta x\) | \(f = \mu N\) |

\(\Delta x = \frac{v_i + v}{2} t\) | \(F_s =-kx\) |

\(v^2 = v_f^2 \,-\, 2a \Delta x\) |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

\(F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r}\) | \(KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2\) |

\(a_c = \frac{v^2}{r}\) | \(PE = mgh\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{r}{g}}\) | \(KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f\) |

\(W = Fd \cos\theta\) |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

\(p = mv\) | \(\tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta)\) |

\(J = \Delta p\) | \(I = \sum mr^2\) |

\(p_i = p_f\) | \(L = I \cdot \omega\) |

Simple Harmonic Motion | Fluids |
---|---|

\(F = -kx\) | \(P = \frac{F}{A}\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}}\) | \(P_{\text{total}} = P_{\text{atm}} + \rho gh\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}}\) | \(Q = Av\) |

\(x(t) = A \cos(\omega t + \phi)\) | \(F_b = \rho V g\) |

\(a = -\omega^2 x\) | \(A_1v_1 = A_2v_2\) |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

[katex]g[/katex] | Acceleration due to gravity, typically [katex]9.8 , \text{m/s}^2[/katex] on Earth’s surface |

[katex]G[/katex] | Universal Gravitational Constant, [katex]6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2[/katex] |

[katex]\mu_k[/katex] and [katex]\mu_s[/katex] | Coefficients of kinetic ([katex]\mu_k[/katex]) and static ([katex]\mu_s[/katex]) friction, dimensionless. Static friction ([katex]\mu_s[/katex]) is usually greater than kinetic friction ([katex]\mu_k[/katex]) as it resists the start of motion. |

[katex]k[/katex] | Spring constant, in [katex]\text{N/m}[/katex] |

[katex] M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Earth |

[katex] M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Moon |

[katex] M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

[katex]s[/katex] (Displacement) | [katex]\text{meters (m)}[/katex] |

[katex]v[/katex] (Velocity) | [katex]\text{meters per second (m/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]a[/katex] (Acceleration) | [katex]\text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)}[/katex] |

[katex]t[/katex] (Time) | [katex]\text{seconds (s)}[/katex] |

[katex]m[/katex] (Mass) | [katex]\text{kilograms (kg)}[/katex] |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

[katex]F[/katex] (Force) | [katex]\text{newtons (N)}[/katex] |

[katex]E[/katex], [katex]PE[/katex], [katex]KE[/katex] (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | [katex]\text{joules (J)}[/katex] |

[katex]P[/katex] (Power) | [katex]\text{watts (W)}[/katex] |

[katex]p[/katex] (Momentum) | [katex]\text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]\omega[/katex] (Angular Velocity) | [katex]\text{radians per second (rad/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]\tau[/katex] (Torque) | [katex]\text{newton meters (Nm)}[/katex] |

[katex]I[/katex] (Moment of Inertia) | [katex]\text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)}[/katex] |

[katex]f[/katex] (Frequency) | [katex]\text{hertz (Hz)}[/katex] |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`[katex]\text{5 km}[/katex]`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`[katex]\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}[/katex]`

Perform the multiplication:

`[katex]\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}[/katex]`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`[katex]\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}[/katex]`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | [katex]10^{-12}[/katex] | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | [katex]10^{-9}[/katex] | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | [katex]10^{-6}[/katex] | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | [katex]10^{-3}[/katex] | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | [katex]10^{-2}[/katex] | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | [katex]10^{-1}[/katex] | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | [katex]10^{0}[/katex] | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | [katex]10^{1}[/katex] | 10 |

Hecto- | h | [katex]10^{2}[/katex] | 100 |

Kilo- | k | [katex]10^{3}[/katex] | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | [katex]10^{6}[/katex] | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | [katex]10^{9}[/katex] | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | [katex]10^{12}[/katex] | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- 1. Some answers may vary by 1% due to rounding.
- Gravity values may differ: \(9.81 \, \text{m/s}^2\) or \(10 \, \text{m/s}^2\).
- Variables can be written differently. For example, initial velocity (\(v_i\)) may be \(u\), and displacement (\(\Delta x\)) may be \(s\).
- Bookmark questions you can’t solve to revisit them later
- 5. Seek help if you’re stuck. The sooner you understand, the better your chances on tests.

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