At terminal velocity, the forces acting on the skydiver are balanced. This means the force of gravity is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of friction (air resistance).

Step | Formula Derivation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | F_{\text{gravity}} = mg | Force of gravity, where m is mass and g is acceleration due to gravity. |

Step | Formula Derivation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | F_{\text{friction}} = F_{\text{gravity}} | At terminal velocity, frictional force equals gravitational force. |

2 | \boxed{853.47, \text{N}} | Plug in values and solve. |

Phy can also check your working. Just snap a picture!

- Statistics

Intermediate

Proportional Analysis

GQ

A child on Earth has a weight of 500N. Determine the weight of the child if the earth was to triple in both mass and radius (3M and 3r).

- Gravitation, Linear Forces

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

A pulley system consists of two blocks of mass 5 kg and 10 kg, connected by a rope of negligible mass that passes over a pulley of radius 0.1 meters and mass 2 kg. The pulley is free to rotate about its axis. The system is released from rest, and the block of mass 10 kg starts to move downwards. Assuming that the coefficient of kinetic friction between the pulley and the rope is 0.2, and neglecting air resistance, determine

- Atwood Machine, Rotational Motion

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A 2.0 kg wood box slides down a vertical wood wall while you push on it at a 45 ° angle. The coefficient of kinetic friction of wood µ_{k} = 0.200. What magnitude of force should you apply to cause the box to slide down at a constant speed?

- Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

There are two cables that lift an elevator, each with a force of 10,000 N. The 1,000 kg elevator is lifted from the first floor and accelerates over 10 m until it reaches its top speed of 6 m/s. What is the mass of the people in the elevator?

- 1D Kinematics, Elevators, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

MCQ

A force *F* is used to hold a block of mass *m* on an incline as shown in the diagram above. The plane makes an angle of \theta with the horizontal and *F* is perpendicular to the plane. The coefficient of friction between the plane and the block is *µ*. What is the minimum force, *F*, necessary to keep the block at rest?

- Inclines, Linear Forces

Beginner

Mathematical

GQ

Two students push a 1750 kg car with a force of 758 N along a perfectly level road at a constant velocity of 4.00 m/s. Find the force of friction.

- Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

MCQ

The speed of a 40 N hockey puck, sliding across a level ice surface, decreases at the rate of 0.61 m/s^{2}. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the puck and ice is

- Friction

Beginner

Mathematical

GQ

What is weight of a person who has a mass of 75 kg?

- Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A 1509 g wood block is being pulled by the force meter at a constant velocity. Using the graph below find:

- The force applied to get the wood block moving
- The static coefficient of friction
- The kinetic coefficient of friction

- Linear Forces

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

*A* has a mass of 3.2 kg and block *B* a mass of 2.4 kg. The pulley is frictionless and has no mass.

- Atwood Machine, Linear Forces

854 N

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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