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Step | Derivation/Formula | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | [katex]x_{M_1} = \frac{L}{2}[/katex] | The boy is sitting at one end of the seesaw, which places him at a distance of half the length of the plank ([katex]L[/katex]) from the fulcrum. |

2 | [katex]x_{M_2} = \frac{L}{2}[/katex] | The girl is sitting at the other end of the seesaw opposite to the boy, also at a distance of half the length of the plank from the fulcrum. |

3 | [katex]x_M = \frac{L}{2}[/katex] | The mass of the plank ([katex]M[/katex]) is uniformly distributed, thus its center of mass is at the midpoint of the plank, which coincides with the fulcrum. |

4 | [katex] \tau_{M_1} = M_1 \cdot g \cdot \frac{L}{2} [/katex] | Calculate the torque due to the boy’s mass at one end of the seesaw. Torque is given by [katex] \tau = r \times F [/katex] where [katex] r [/katex] is the distance from the pivot point and [katex] F [/katex] is the force due to weight, which is [katex] M_1 \cdot g [/katex]. |

5 | [katex] \tau_{M_2} = M_2 \cdot g \cdot \frac{L}{2} [/katex] | Calculate the torque due to the girl’s mass at the other end. Similar to step 4, using the girl’s mass. |

6 | [katex] \tau_M = M \cdot g \cdot 0 [/katex] | Calculate the torque due to the seesaw’s own mass. Since the seesaw’s center of mass is exactly at the fulcrum, the distance [katex] r [/katex] is zero, thus the torque is zero. |

7 | [katex] \tau_{total} = \tau_{M_1} – \tau_{M_2} [/katex] | Sum the torques. Torque due to the boy is assumed counterclockwise and positive, while that due to the girl is clockwise and negative (or vice versa depending on assignment). |

8 | [katex] M_1 \cdot g \cdot \frac{L}{2} = M_2 \cdot g \cdot \frac{L}{2} [/katex] | For the seesaw to be balanced, the total torque must be 0. Setting the torques equal gives this balance condition. |

9 | [katex] M_1 = M_2 [/katex] | Solve for the relationship between [katex] M_1 [/katex] and [katex] M_2 [/katex]. Since all other factors are equal and cancel out, the masses must be equal for balance. |

10 | [katex] M_1 = M_2 [/katex] |
This shows that for the seesaw to remain balanced with a plank mass placed uniformly, the masses of the boy and girl must be equal. This is the condition for mechanical equilibrium. |

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- Statistics

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

A pulley system consists of two blocks of mass 5 kg and 10 kg, connected by a rope of negligible mass that passes over a pulley of radius 0.1 meters and mass 2 kg. The pulley is free to rotate about its axis. The system is released from rest, and the block of mass 10 kg starts to move downwards. Assuming that the coefficient of kinetic friction between the pulley and the rope is 0.2, and neglecting air resistance, determine

- Atwood Machine, Rotational Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A horizontal uniform meter stick of mass 0.2 kg is supported at its midpoint by a pivot point. A mass of 0.1 kg is attached to the left end of the meter stick, and another mass of 0.15 kg is attached to the right end of the meter stick. The meter stick is free to rotate in the horizontal plane around the pivot point. What is the tension in the string supporting the left end of the meter stick?

- Linear Forces, Rotational Motion, Torque

Beginner

Conceptual

MCQ

Five forces act on a rod that is free to pivot at point P, as shown in the figure. Which of these forces is producing a counter-clockwise torque about point P?

- Rotational Motion, Torque

Intermediate

Mathematical

MCQ

During the experiment, students collect data about the angular momentum of a rigid, uniform spinning wheel about an axle as a function of time, which was used to create the graph that is shown. A frictional torque is exerted on the wheel. A student makes the following statement about the data. “The frictional torque exerted on the wheel is independent of the wheel’s angular speed.” Does the data from the graph support the student’s statement? Justify your selection.

- Angular Momentum, Rotational Motion, Torque

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A car is moving up the side of a circular roller coaster loop of radius 12 m. The angular velocity is [katex] 1.8 \, \text{rad/s} [/katex] and angular acceleration is [katex] -0.82 \, \text{rad/s}^2 [/katex]. The car is at the same elevation as the center of the loop. Find the magnitude and direction of the acceleration.

- Centripetal Acceleration, Rotational Kinematics

Yes. Both children have identical masses. See working in explanation.

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\(\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2\) | \(F = ma\) |

\(v = v_i + at\) | \(F_g = \frac{G m_1 m_2}{r^2}\) |

\(v^2 = v_i^2 + 2a \Delta x\) | \(f = \mu N\) |

\(\Delta x = \frac{v_i + v}{2} t\) | \(F_s =-kx\) |

\(v^2 = v_f^2 \,-\, 2a \Delta x\) |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

\(F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r}\) | \(KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2\) |

\(a_c = \frac{v^2}{r}\) | \(PE = mgh\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{r}{g}}\) | \(KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f\) |

\(W = Fd \cos\theta\) |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

\(p = mv\) | \(\tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta)\) |

\(J = \Delta p\) | \(I = \sum mr^2\) |

\(p_i = p_f\) | \(L = I \cdot \omega\) |

Simple Harmonic Motion | Fluids |
---|---|

\(F = -kx\) | \(P = \frac{F}{A}\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}}\) | \(P_{\text{total}} = P_{\text{atm}} + \rho gh\) |

\(T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}}\) | \(Q = Av\) |

\(x(t) = A \cos(\omega t + \phi)\) | \(F_b = \rho V g\) |

\(a = -\omega^2 x\) | \(A_1v_1 = A_2v_2\) |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

[katex]g[/katex] | Acceleration due to gravity, typically [katex]9.8 , \text{m/s}^2[/katex] on Earth’s surface |

[katex]G[/katex] | Universal Gravitational Constant, [katex]6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2[/katex] |

[katex]\mu_k[/katex] and [katex]\mu_s[/katex] | Coefficients of kinetic ([katex]\mu_k[/katex]) and static ([katex]\mu_s[/katex]) friction, dimensionless. Static friction ([katex]\mu_s[/katex]) is usually greater than kinetic friction ([katex]\mu_k[/katex]) as it resists the start of motion. |

[katex]k[/katex] | Spring constant, in [katex]\text{N/m}[/katex] |

[katex] M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Earth |

[katex] M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Moon |

[katex] M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} [/katex] | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

[katex]s[/katex] (Displacement) | [katex]\text{meters (m)}[/katex] |

[katex]v[/katex] (Velocity) | [katex]\text{meters per second (m/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]a[/katex] (Acceleration) | [katex]\text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)}[/katex] |

[katex]t[/katex] (Time) | [katex]\text{seconds (s)}[/katex] |

[katex]m[/katex] (Mass) | [katex]\text{kilograms (kg)}[/katex] |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

[katex]F[/katex] (Force) | [katex]\text{newtons (N)}[/katex] |

[katex]E[/katex], [katex]PE[/katex], [katex]KE[/katex] (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | [katex]\text{joules (J)}[/katex] |

[katex]P[/katex] (Power) | [katex]\text{watts (W)}[/katex] |

[katex]p[/katex] (Momentum) | [katex]\text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]\omega[/katex] (Angular Velocity) | [katex]\text{radians per second (rad/s)}[/katex] |

[katex]\tau[/katex] (Torque) | [katex]\text{newton meters (Nm)}[/katex] |

[katex]I[/katex] (Moment of Inertia) | [katex]\text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)}[/katex] |

[katex]f[/katex] (Frequency) | [katex]\text{hertz (Hz)}[/katex] |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`[katex]\text{5 km}[/katex]`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`[katex]\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}[/katex]`

Perform the multiplication:

`[katex]\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}[/katex]`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`[katex]\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}[/katex]`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | [katex]10^{-12}[/katex] | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | [katex]10^{-9}[/katex] | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | [katex]10^{-6}[/katex] | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | [katex]10^{-3}[/katex] | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | [katex]10^{-2}[/katex] | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | [katex]10^{-1}[/katex] | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | [katex]10^{0}[/katex] | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | [katex]10^{1}[/katex] | 10 |

Hecto- | h | [katex]10^{2}[/katex] | 100 |

Kilo- | k | [katex]10^{3}[/katex] | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | [katex]10^{6}[/katex] | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | [katex]10^{9}[/katex] | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | [katex]10^{12}[/katex] | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- 1. Some answers may vary by 1% due to rounding.
- Gravity values may differ: \(9.81 \, \text{m/s}^2\) or \(10 \, \text{m/s}^2\).
- Variables can be written differently. For example, initial velocity (\(v_i\)) may be \(u\), and displacement (\(\Delta x\)) may be \(s\).
- Bookmark questions you can’t solve to revisit them later
- 5. Seek help if you’re stuck. The sooner you understand, the better your chances on tests.

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