Step | Derivation/Formula | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | v = R \omega | The relationship between linear velocity v , radius R , and angular velocity \omega . Here v is the tangential speed at the equator. |

2 | \omega = \frac{2\pi}{T} | Angular velocity \omega is calculated as the ratio of 2\pi (the angle for one full rotation in radians) to the period T of one rotation. |

3 | \omega = \frac{2\pi \, \text{rad}}{1.0 \, \text{s}} = 2\pi \, \text{rad/s} | Substitute the period T = 1.0 s to find the angular velocity. |

4 | v = 10 \times 10^{3} \, \text{m} \cdot 2\pi \, \text{rad/s} | Substitute the radius R = 10 \, \text{km} = 10 \times 10^{3} \, \text{m} and the calculated angular velocity into the formula for linear speed. |

5 | v = 20\pi \times 10^{3} \, \text{m/s} | Calculate the product to find the linear speed. |

6 | \ v \approx 62,832 \, \text{m/s} \ |
Finding the numerical approximation for 20\pi \times 10^{3} by substituting \pi \approx 3.14159 , giving the speed at the equator of the neutron star. |

Phy can also check your working. Just snap a picture!

- Statistics

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A 2.2 kg ball on the end of a 0.35 m long string is moving in a vertical circle. At the bottom of the circle, its speed is 5.3 m/s. Find the tension in the string.

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

A car is safely negotiating an unbanked circular turn at a speed of 17 m/s on dry road. However, a long wet patch in the road appears and decreases the maximum static frictional force to one-fifth of its dry-road value. If the car is to continue safely around the curve, by what factor would the it need to change the original velocity?

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

Two identical object rests on a platform rotating at constant speed. Object A is at distance of half the platform’s radius from the center. Object B lays at edge of the platform. Assuming the platform continues rotating at the same speed, how does the centripetal force of the two objects compare?

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

What is a man’s apparent weight at the equator if his weight is 500 N? The earth’s radius is 6.37 x 10^{6} m.

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A person’s back is against the inner wall of spinning cylinder with no support under their feet. If the radius is R, find an expression for the minimum angular speed so the person does not slide down the wall. The coefficient of static friction is µ_{s}.

Note: If you haven’t studied angular velocity \omega yet, just find the linear velocity *v. *

- Circular Motion

62,832 m/s

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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