Step | Formula Derivation | Explanation |
---|---|---|

1 | v = \sqrt{\frac{GM}{r}} | Orbital velocity formula, where v is orbital speed, G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of the central planet, and r is the orbital radius. |

2 | v^2 = \frac{GM}{r} | Squaring both sides of the orbital velocity formula. |

3 | r = \frac{GM}{v^2} | Rearranging the formula to solve for r. |

4 | r \propto \frac{1}{v^2} for constant M | The orbital radius is inversely proportional to the square of the orbital velocity for a given planetary mass. |

5 | r \propto M for constant v | For a constant orbital speed, the orbital radius is directly proportional to the mass of the planet. |

6 | Mars vs. Jupiter | Mars has a significantly lower mass than Jupiter. |

7 | Conclusion | For the same orbital speed, Satellite B (orbiting Jupiter) will have a greater orbital radius compared to Satellite A (orbiting Mars). |

This analysis shows that since Jupiter is much more massive than Mars, the satellite orbiting Jupiter (Satellite B) must have a larger orbital radius than the one orbiting Mars to maintain the same orbital speed.

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- Statistics

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A new car is tested on a 230-m-diameter track. If the car speeds up at a steady 1.4 \, m/s^2, how long after starting is the magnitude of its centripetal acceleration equal to the tangential acceleration?

- Centripetal Acceleration, Circular Motion

Intermediate

Conceptual

MCQ

Which of the following do not affect the maximum speed that a car can drive in a circle? Choose both correct answers.

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

A rock is whirled on the end of a string in a horizontal circle of radius R with a constant period T. If the radius of the circle is reduced to R/3, while the period remains T, what happens to the centripetal acceleration (a_{c}) of the rock?

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

GQ

The distance from earth to sun is 1.0 AU. The distance from Saturn to sun is 9 AU. Find the period of Saturn’s orbit in years. You can assume that the orbits are circular.

- Circular Motion, Gravitation

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

A car is safely negotiating an unbanked circular turn at a speed of 17 m/s on dry road. However, a long wet patch in the road appears and decreases the maximum static frictional force to one-fifth of its dry-road value. If the car is to continue safely around the curve, by what factor would the it need to change the original velocity?

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

*v _{A}* . Satellite B has an orbital radius nine times that of satellite A. What is the speed of satellite B?

- Circular Motion, Gravitation

Intermediate

Proportional Analysis

GQ

The Earth’s radius is 6.37 x 10^{6} m. What is the radius of a planet that has the same mass as earth but on which the free-fall acceleration is 5.50 m/s^{2}？

- Gravitation

Advanced

Mathematical

MCQ

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A 3300-m-high mountain is located on the equator. How much faster does a climber on top of the mountain move than a surfer at a nearby beach? The earth’s radius is 6400 km and the earth’s mass is 5.97 x 10^{24}.

- Gravitation

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A 2.2 kg ball on the end of a 0.35 m long string is moving in a vertical circle. At the bottom of the circle, its speed is 5.3 m/s. Find the tension in the string.

- Circular Motion

Satellite B

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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