AP Physics Unit

Unit 3 - Circular Motion

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

A 250 newton centripetal force acts on a car moving at a constant speed in a horizontal circle. If the same force is applied, but the radius is made smaller, what happens to the speed v and the frequency f of the car?

  1. v decreases and f decreases

  2. v increases and f decreases

  3. v decreases and f increases

  4. v increases and f increases

  5. None of the above

Step Formula / Derivation Reasoning
1 F_c = \frac{mv^2}{R} Centripetal force formula, where m is mass, v is speed, and R is radius.
2 v = \frac{2\pi R}{T} Speed v is the circumference 2\pi R divided by period T .
3 T = \frac{1}{f} Period T is the reciprocal of frequency f .
4 v = 2\pi R f Substituting T = \frac{1}{f} into v = \frac{2\pi R}{T} .
5 F_c constant, R decreases If R decreases and F_c is constant, v^2 must decrease to maintain the equation.
6 v decreases Speed v must decrease because v^2 has decreased.
7 f increases Since v decreases but R decreases more (being in the denominator), the overall effect is an increase in f .

The correct answer is:

c. v decreases and f increases

In step 2, the relationship is derived from the definition of linear speed in circular motion, where the distance traveled in one revolution is the circumference of the circle. Substituting the period T with its reciprocal, the frequency f , directly gives us the relationship used in step 4. This process shows how the frequency of revolutions is inversely proportional to the period and directly proportional to the linear speed and radius of the path.

Check With Phy

Solve. Take a picture. Upload. Phy will grade your working.

Simple Chat Box
Ask Phy About This MCQ

Phy Beta V5 (1.28.24) – Systems Operational.

Topics in this question

Discover how students preformed on this question | Coming Soon

Discussion Threads

Leave a Reply

Nerd Notes

Discover the world's best Physics resources

Continue with

By continuing you (1) agree to our Terms of Sale and Terms of Use and (2) consent to sharing your IP and browser information used by this site’s security protocols as outlined in our Privacy Policy.

Share Your Feedback.

What went wrong? Found something incorrect? OR just want to tell us to add/improve something on this page? We listen to all your feedback!

You must be signed in to leave feedback

Nerd-Notes.com
KinematicsForces
\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2F = ma
v = v_i + atF_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2}
a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t}f = \mu N
R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} 
Circular MotionEnergy
F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r}KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2
a_c = \frac{v^2}{r}PE = mgh
 KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f
MomentumTorque and Rotations
p = m v\tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta)
J = \Delta pI = \sum mr^2
p_i = p_fL = I \cdot \omega
Simple Harmonic Motion
F = -k x
T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}}
T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}}
ConstantDescription
gAcceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface
GUniversal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2
\mu_k and \mu_sCoefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion.
kSpring constant, in \text{N/m}
M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} Mass of the Earth
M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} Mass of the Moon
M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} Mass of the Sun
VariableSI Unit
s (Displacement)\text{meters (m)}
v (Velocity)\text{meters per second (m/s)}
a (Acceleration)\text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)}
t (Time)\text{seconds (s)}
m (Mass)\text{kilograms (kg)}
VariableDerived SI Unit
F (Force)\text{newtons (N)}
E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy)\text{joules (J)}
P (Power)\text{watts (W)}
p (Momentum)\text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)}
\omega (Angular Velocity)\text{radians per second (rad/s)}
\tau (Torque)\text{newton meters (Nm)}
I (Moment of Inertia)\text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)}
f (Frequency)\text{hertz (Hz)}

General Metric Conversion Chart

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters. 

  1. Start with the given measurement: \text{5 km}

  2. Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters: \text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}

  3. Perform the multiplication: \text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}

  4. Simplify to get the final answer: \boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}

Prefix

Symbol

Power of Ten

Equivalent

Pico-

p

10^{-12}

Nano-

n

10^{-9}

Micro-

µ

10^{-6}

Milli-

m

10^{-3}

Centi-

c

10^{-2}

Deci-

d

10^{-1}

(Base unit)

10^{0}

Deca- or Deka-

da

10^{1}

Hecto-

h

10^{2}

Kilo-

k

10^{3}

Mega-

M

10^{6}

Giga-

G

10^{9}

Tera-

T

10^{12}

  1. Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
  2. Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s2, and other 10 m/s2 for calculations.
  3. Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
  4. Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later. 
  5. Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

Jason here! Feeling uneasy about your next physics test? I will help boost your grades in just two hours.

We use site cookies to improve your experience. By continuing to browse on this website, you accept the use of cookies as outlined in our privacy policy.