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Step Derivation/Formula Reasoning
1 \tau = r \times F Torque (\tau) is calculated as the product of the radial distance (r) and the force applied (F). The force here could be the result of the weights due to the masses.
2 F = mg Force due to gravity is calculated by multiplying the mass (m) by the acceleration due to gravity (g, approximately 9.8 \, \text{m/s}^2).
3 \tau_{\text{left}} = 0.5 \, \text{m} \times 0.1 \, \text{kg} \times 9.8 \, \text{m/s}^2
\tau_{\text{left}} = 0.49 \, \text{Nm}
The torque produced by the mass on the left end. The radial distance here is half a meter since it’s at the end of half the length of the meter stick.
4 \tau_{\text{right}} = 0.5 \, \text{m} \times 0.15 \, \text{kg} \times 9.8 \, \text{m/s}^2
\tau_{\text{right}} = 0.735 \, \text{Nm}
The torque produced by the mass on the right end, using similar calculations as for the left side.
5 \text{Net } \tau = \tau_{\text{right}} – \tau_{\text{left}}
\text{Net } \tau = 0.735 \, \text{Nm} – 0.49 \, \text{Nm}
\text{Net } \tau = 0.245 \, \text{Nm}
Calculate the net torque on the meter stick. Since the stick is in rotational equilibrium, this net torque has to be counteracted by the tension in the string.
6 T \times 0.5 \, \text{m} = 0.245 \, \text{Nm} Set the torque due to the tension (T) equal to the net torque. The distance from the pivot to the left end is 0.5 \, \text{m}.
7 T = \frac{0.245 \, \text{Nm}}{0.5 \, \text{m}}
T = 0.49 \, \text{N}
Solve for the tension T in the string supporting the left end of the meter stick.
8 T = 0.49 \, \text{N} Final answer: The tension in the string supporting the left end of the meter stick is 0.49 Newtons.

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KinematicsForces
\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2F = ma
v = v_i + atF_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2}
a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t}f = \mu N
R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g}
Circular MotionEnergy
F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r}KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2
a_c = \frac{v^2}{r}PE = mgh
KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f
MomentumTorque and Rotations
p = m v\tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta)
J = \Delta pI = \sum mr^2
p_i = p_fL = I \cdot \omega
Simple Harmonic Motion
F = -k x
T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}}
T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}}
ConstantDescription
gAcceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface
GUniversal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2
\mu_k and \mu_sCoefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion.
kSpring constant, in \text{N/m}
M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} Mass of the Earth
M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} Mass of the Moon
M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} Mass of the Sun
VariableSI Unit
s (Displacement)\text{meters (m)}
v (Velocity)\text{meters per second (m/s)}
a (Acceleration)\text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)}
t (Time)\text{seconds (s)}
m (Mass)\text{kilograms (kg)}
VariableDerived SI Unit
F (Force)\text{newtons (N)}
E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy)\text{joules (J)}
P (Power)\text{watts (W)}
p (Momentum)\text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)}
\tau (Torque)\text{newton meters (Nm)}
I (Moment of Inertia)\text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)}
f (Frequency)\text{hertz (Hz)}

General Metric Conversion Chart

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

1. Start with the given measurement: \text{5 km}

2. Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters: \text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}

3. Perform the multiplication: \text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}

4. Simplify to get the final answer: \boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}

Prefix

Symbol

Power of Ten

Equivalent

Pico-

p

10^{-12}

Nano-

n

10^{-9}

Micro-

µ

10^{-6}

Milli-

m

10^{-3}

Centi-

c

10^{-2}

Deci-

d

10^{-1}

(Base unit)

10^{0}

Deca- or Deka-

da

10^{1}

Hecto-

h

10^{2}

Kilo-

k

10^{3}

Mega-

M

10^{6}

Giga-

G

10^{9}

Tera-

T

10^{12}

1. Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
2. Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s2, and other 10 m/s2 for calculations.
3. Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
4. Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
5. Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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