Step | Derivation/Formula | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | v = \sqrt{\frac{2 KE}{m}} | Initially, both blocks have the same kinetic energy, so their speeds are calculated using their respective masses. Since m_2 > m_1 , v_1 > v_2 (velocity of m_1 is greater than velocity of m_2 ). |

2 | W_{friction} = f \cdot d = \mu_k m g \cdot d | Friction does work to stop the blocks, where f is the frictional force and d is the distance before they stop. |

3 | KE = \frac{1}{2} m v^2 | The initial kinetic energy of each block. This is given as the same value for both blocks, depending on their mass and speeds derived above. |

4 | \mu_k m g \cdot d = \frac{1}{2} m v^2 | Equating the work done by friction to the kinetic energy of each block, solve for d . |

5 | d = \frac{\frac{1}{2} m v^2}{\mu_k m g} = \frac{v^2}{2 \mu_k g} | Since the mass m cancels out from the equation for d , the distance d each block travels before stopping depends only on v and not on m . Hence, m_1 which has a higher v will travel further. |

6 | (a) m_1 |
Since v_1 > v_2 due to m_1 being less than m_2 but both having the same initial kinetic energy, block m_1 will travel further before stopping due to its greater velocity. |

The answer is: **(a) m_1 ** will travel further before stopping. The determining factor here is that both experience the same deceleration due to friction (independent of mass), but the initial velocity of the lighter block is greater.

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- Statistics

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A 0.5 kg cart, on a frictionless 2 m long table, is being pulled by a 0.1 kg mass connected by a string and hanging over a pulley. The system is released from rest. After the hanging mass falls 0.5 m, calculate the speed of the cart on the table. Use ONLY forces and energy.

- Energy

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

A small block moving with a constant speed v collides inelastically with a block M attached to one end of a spring k. The other end of the spring is connected to a stationary wall. Ignore friction between the blocks and the surface.

- Energy, Simple Harmonic Motion, Springs

Intermediate

Conceptual

MCQ

A bullet at speed v_0 trikes and embeds itself in a block of wood which is suspended by a string, causing the bullet and block to rise to a maximum height h. Which of the following statements is true?

- Energy, Momentum

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

A rescue helicopter lifts a 79 kg person straight up by means of a cable. The person has an upward acceleration of 0.70 m/s^{2} and is lifted through a distance of 11 m.

- Energy, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

An object with a mass m = 80 g is attached to a spring with a force constant k = 25 N/m. The spring is stretched 52.0 cm and released from rest. If it is oscillating on a horizontal frictionless surface, determine the velocity of the mass when it is halfway to the equilibrium position.

- Energy

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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