In which of these cases is the rate of change of the particle’s displacement constant?

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- Statistics

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

You stand at the edge of a vertical cliff and throws a stone vertically upwards. The stone leaves your hand with a speed v = 8.0 m/s. The time between the stone leaving your hand and hitting the sea is 3.0 s. Assume air resistance is negligible. Calculate:

- 1D Kinematics

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

Traveling at a speed of 15.9 m/s, the driver of an automobile suddenly locks the wheels by slamming on the brakes. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the tires and the road is 0.659. What is the speed of the automobile after 1.59 s have elapsed? Ignore the effects of air resistance.

- 1D Kinematics, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

Priscilla the Penguin stands at the edge of a rock ledge and tosses a small ice cube directly upward with an initial velocity of *v _{o}*. The ice cube’s initial height above the ground is 3.25 m, and reaches it maximum height above the ground 0.586 s after being thrown. The ice cube then plummets to the ground, missing the edge of the rock ledge on its way down.

- 1D Kinematics

Beginner

Mathematical

GQ

A car travels at 20 m/s for 5 minutes and then travels another 2 km at 40 m/s. What is the total

distance traveled and time of travel for the car?

- 1D Kinematics

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

^{2}. At *t _{1}* the rocket engine is shut down and the sled moves with constant velocity

- 1D Kinematics

Intermediate

Mathematical

MCQ

- 1D Kinematics, Motion Graphs

Beginner

Mathematical

GQ

Police officers have measured the length of a car’s tire skid marks to be 23 meters. This particular car is known to decelerate at a constant 7.5 m/s^{2}. What was the car’s initial velocity?

- 1D Kinematics

Advanced

Conceptual

MCQ

Toy car W travels across a horizontal surface with an acceleration of a_w after starting from rest. Toy car Z travels across the same surface toward car W with an acceleration of a_z , after starting from rest. Car W is separated from car Z by a distance d . Which of the following pairs of equations could be used to determine the location on the horizontal surface where the two cars will meet, and why?

- 1D Kinematics

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

MCQ

A gun can fire a bullet to height *h* when fired straight up. If the same gun is pointed at an angle of 45° from the vertical, what is the new maximum height of the projectile?

- 1D Kinematics, Projectiles

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A mine shaft is known to be 57.8 m deep. If you dropped a rock down the shaft, how long would it take for you to hear the sound of the rock hitting the bottom of the shaft knowing that sound travels at a constant velocity of 345 m/s?

- 1D Kinematics

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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