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- Statistics

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A new car is tested on a 230-m-diameter track. If the car speeds up at a steady 1.4 \, m/s^2, how long after starting is the magnitude of its centripetal acceleration equal to the tangential acceleration?

- Centripetal Acceleration, Circular Motion

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A communications satellite orbits the Earth at an altitude of 35,000 km above the Earth’s surface. Take the mass of Earth to be 6 \times 10^{24} \text{ kg} the the radius of Earth to be 6.4 \times 10^6 \text{ m}. What is the satellite’s velocity?

- Centripetal Acceleration, Circular Motion, Gravitation, Linear Forces

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A car is moving up the side of a circular roller coaster loop of radius 12 m. The angular velocity is 1.8 \, \text{rad/s} and angular acceleration is -0.82 \, \text{rad/s}^2 . The car is at the same elevation as the center of the loop. Find the magnitude and direction of the acceleration.

- Centripetal Acceleration, Rotational Kinematics

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

An Olympic bobsled team goes through a horizontal curve at a speed of 120 km/hr. If the radius of curvature is 10.0 m, what is the apparent weight the crew experiences-express in terms of mg.

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

An object of unknown mass is acted upon by multiple forces:

- 100 N to the right at 20°
- 400 N to the left at 40° below the horizontal
- 500 N to the right at 10° below horizontal.

The coefficients of friction are μ_{s}=0.6 and μ_{k}=0.2. Starting from rest, the object travels 10 meters in 4.5 seconds. What is the mass of the unknown object?

- 1D Kinematics, Friction, Linear Forces

Advanced

Proportional Analysis

GQ

Two identical satellites are placed in orbit of two different planets. Satellite A orbits Mars, and Satellite B orbits Jupiter. The orbital speeds of each satellite are the same. Which satellite has a greater orbital radius?

- Circular Motion, Gravitation

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

Consider a neutron star with a mass equal to the sun, a radius of 10 km, and a rotation period of 1.0 s. What is the radius of a geosynchronous orbit about the neutron star? The mass of the sun can be found in the formula sheet above.

- Circular Motion, Gravitation

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A 5.0 g coin is placed 15 cm from the center of a turntable. The coin has coefficients of static and kinetic friction of µ_{s} = 0.80 and µ_{k} = 0.50. The turntable slowly speeds up to 60 rpm. Does the coin slide off the turntable?

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

An airplane can safely bank when subjected to a centripetal acceleration of 8 g’s. If the airplane flies at a constant speed of 400 m/s, how long does it take to make a 180° turn?

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

A neighbor’s child wants to go to a carnival to experience the wild rides. The neighbor is worried about safety because one of the rides looks particularly dangerous. She knows that you have taken physics and so asks you for advice.

The ride in question has a 4 kg chair which hangs freely from a 10 m long chain attached to a pivot on the top of a tall tower. When the child enters the ride, the chain is hanging straight down. The child is then attached to the chair with a seat belt and shoulder harness. When the ride starts up, the chain rotates about the tower. Soon the chain reaches its maximum speed and remains rotating at that speed, which corresponds to one rotation about the tower every 3 seconds.

When you ask the operator, he says the ride is perfectly safe. He demonstrates this by sitting in the stationary chair. The chain creaks but holds, and he weighs 90 kg.

- Circular Motion

No, the driver will not make it around the curve.

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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