**1. Tension at the Bottom of the Circle**

Step | Formula Derivation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | F_{\text{net}} = F_{\text{tension}} – mg | Net force at the bottom is the tension minus gravitational force. |

2 | F_{\text{net}} = m\frac{v^2}{r} | Net force is also the centripetal force for circular motion. |

3 | v = \frac{2\pi r}{T} | Velocity v is the circumference over the period T. |

4 | T = \frac{1, \text{s}}{2} | Period for one revolution (T) is half a second for 2 revolutions per second. |

5 | v = \frac{2\pi \times 0.800, \text{m}}{0.5, \text{s}} | Substituting values for r and T. |

6 | F_{\text{tension}} = m\frac{v^2}{r} + mg | Solving for tension at the bottom. |

**2. Tension at the Top of the Circle**

Step | Formula Derivation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | F_{\text{net}} = F_{\text{tension}} + mg | Net force at the top is the tension plus gravitational force. |

2 | F_{\text{net}} = m\frac{v^2}{r} | Net force is the centripetal force for circular motion. |

3 | F_{\text{tension}} = m\frac{v^2}{r} – mg | Solving for tension at the top. |

Let’s calculate the tensions at the bottom and the top of the circle.

The tensions in the string are as follows:

- At the bottom of the circle: \boxed{136.14, \text{N}}
- At the top of the circle: \boxed{116.52, \text{N}}

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- Statistics

Intermediate

Mathematical

GQ

A 2.2 kg ball on the end of a 0.35 m long string is moving in a vertical circle. At the bottom of the circle, its speed is 5.3 m/s. Find the tension in the string.

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A curve with a radius of 125 m is properly banked for a car traveling 40 m/s. What must be the coefficient of static friction (µ_{s}) for a car not to skid on the same curve when traveling at 53 m/s?

- Banked Curves, Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A 2.2 \times 10^{21} \, \text{kg} moon orbits a distant planet in a circular orbit of radius 1.5 \times 10^8 \, \text{m}. It experiences a 1.1 \times 10^{19} \, \text{N} gravitational pull from the planet. What is the moon’s orbital period in earth days?

- Circular Motion, Gravitation

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

A conical pendulum is formed by attaching a ball of mass m to a string of length L, then allowing the ball to move in a horizontal circle of radius R.

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

What is a man’s apparent weight at the equator if his weight is 500 N? The earth’s radius is 6.37 x 10^{6} m.

- Circular Motion

- Bottom: 116.5 N
- Top: 136.14 N

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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