Objective: Calculate the minimum height h above the bottom of the loop from which a block must start on a frictionless track to successfully complete a vertical loop of radius R .

Step | Formula Derivation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | E_{\text{initial}} = E_{\text{final}} | Conservation of Energy principle. |

2 | mgh = \frac{1}{2}mv^2 + mg(2R) | At the top of the loop, the block’s energy is the sum of its kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy. |

3 | v^2 = \frac{5gR}{2} | Minimum velocity at the top of the loop to maintain circular motion without falling is \sqrt{gR} , where g is the acceleration due to gravity. |

4 | h = \frac{5R}{2} | Substitute v^2 into the energy equation and solve for h . |

4 | v_{\text{top}}^2 = gR | Minimum velocity at the top of the loop to avoid falling, where v_{\text{top}} is the velocity at the top of the loop. |

5 | mgh = \frac{1}{2}mv_{\text{top}}^2 + mg(2R) | Energy conservation: Initial potential energy equals final kinetic energy plus final potential energy. |

6 | gh = \frac{1}{2}gR + 2gR | Substituting v_{\text{top}}^2 = gR and simplifying. |

7 | h = \frac{5}{2}R | Solving for h in terms of R . |

The minimum height h from which the block must start to successfully complete the loop is \boxed{\frac{5}{2}R} .

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- Statistics

Intermediate

Conceptual

GQ

A satellite in circular orbit around the Earth moves at constant speed. This orbit is maintained by the force of gravity between the Earth and the satellite, yet no work is done on the satellite. How is this possible?

- Circular Motion, Energy, Gravitation

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A person’s back is against the inner wall of spinning cylinder with no support under their feet. If the radius is R, find an expression for the minimum angular speed so the person does not slide down the wall. The coefficient of static friction is µ_{s}.

Note: If you haven’t studied angular velocity \omega yet, just find the linear velocity *v. *

- Circular Motion

Advanced

Mathematical

MCQ

A roller coaster car crosses the top of a circular loop-the-loop at twice the critical speed. What is the ratio of the normal force to the gravitational force?

- Circular Motion

Intermediate

Mathematical

FRQ

In 2014, the European Space Agency placed a satellite in orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and then landed a probe on the surface. The actual orbit was elliptical, but we can approximate it as a 50 km diameter circular orbit with a period of 11 days.

- Circular Motion, Gravitation

Intermediate

Conceptual

GQ

Suppose you are a passenger traveling in car along a road that bends to the left. Why will you feel like you are being thrown against the door. What causes this force?

- Circular Motion

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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