Step | Formula Derivation | Reasoning |
---|---|---|

1 | KE_1 = 3KE_2 | Given: Kinetic energy of fragment 1 (KE_1) is 3 times that of fragment 2 (KE_2). |

2 | KE = \frac{1}{2}mv^2 | Kinetic energy formula. |

3 | \frac{1}{2}m_1v_1^2 = 3 \times \frac{1}{2}m_2v_2^2 | Substitute kinetic energy expressions for both fragments. |

4 | m_1v_1^2 = 3m_2v_2^2 | Simplify the equation. |

5 | m_1v_1 = m_2v_2 | Conservation of momentum (initial momentum is zero, so final momenta of fragments must be equal and opposite). |

6 | v_2 = \frac{m_1}{m_2}v_1 | Solve for v_2 from the momentum equation. |

7 | m_1v_1^2 = 3m_2\left(\frac{m_1}{m_2}v_1\right)^2 | Substitute v_2 into the kinetic energy equation. |

8 | m_1 = 3m_2\left(\frac{m_1^2}{m_2^2}\right) | Simplify the equation. |

9 | m_2 = 3m_1 | Rearrange the equation to solve for the ratio of masses. |

10 | m_1 /m_2 = \frac{1}{3} | Solve for the ratio of m_1 to m_2. |

11 | m_1:m_2 = 1/3 | Corrected ratio of the masses of the two fragments. |

Phy can also check your working. Just snap a picture!

- Statistics

Advanced

Mathematical

GQ

A 81 kg student dives off a 45 m tall bridge with an 18 m long bungee cord tied to his feet and to the bridge. You can consider the bungee cord to be a flexible spring. What spring constant must the bungee cord have for the student’s lowest point to be 2.0 m above the water?

- Energy, Springs

Advanced

Conceptual

MCQ

A karate master is about to split a piece of wood with her hand. Select all she must do in order to deliver the maximum force to split the wood.

- Linear Forces, Momentum

Advanced

Mathematical

FRQ

A skier with a mass of 58 kg glides up a snowy incline that forms an angle of 28 degrees with the horizontal. The skier initially moves at a speed of 7.2 m/s. After traveling a distance of 2.3 meters up the slope, the skier’s speed reduces to 3.8 m/s.

- Energy, Linear Forces

Intermediate

Conceptual

GQ

A satellite in circular orbit around the Earth moves at constant speed. This orbit is maintained by the force of gravity between the Earth and the satellite, yet no work is done on the satellite. How is this possible?

- Circular Motion, Energy, Gravitation

Intermediate

Mathematical

MCQ

A rubber ball with a mass of 0.25 kg and a speed of 19.0 m/s collides perpendicularly with a wall and bounces off with a speed of 21 m/s in the opposite direction. What is the magnitude of the impulse acting on the rubber ball?

- Momentum

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Kinematics | Forces |
---|---|

\Delta x = v_i t + \frac{1}{2} at^2 | F = ma |

v = v_i + at | F_g = \frac{G m_1m_2}{r^2} |

a = \frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t} | f = \mu N |

R = \frac{v_i^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g} |

Circular Motion | Energy |
---|---|

F_c = \frac{mv^2}{r} | KE = \frac{1}{2} mv^2 |

a_c = \frac{v^2}{r} | PE = mgh |

KE_i + PE_i = KE_f + PE_f |

Momentum | Torque and Rotations |
---|---|

p = m v | \tau = r \cdot F \cdot \sin(\theta) |

J = \Delta p | I = \sum mr^2 |

p_i = p_f | L = I \cdot \omega |

Simple Harmonic Motion |
---|

F = -k x |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}} |

T = 2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}} |

Constant | Description |
---|---|

g | Acceleration due to gravity, typically 9.8 , \text{m/s}^2 on Earth’s surface |

G | Universal Gravitational Constant, 6.674 \times 10^{-11} , \text{N} \cdot \text{m}^2/\text{kg}^2 |

\mu_k and \mu_s | Coefficients of kinetic (\mu_k) and static (\mu_s) friction, dimensionless. Static friction (\mu_s) is usually greater than kinetic friction (\mu_k) as it resists the start of motion. |

k | Spring constant, in \text{N/m} |

M_E = 5.972 \times 10^{24} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Earth |

M_M = 7.348 \times 10^{22} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Moon |

M_M = 1.989 \times 10^{30} , \text{kg} | Mass of the Sun |

Variable | SI Unit |
---|---|

s (Displacement) | \text{meters (m)} |

v (Velocity) | \text{meters per second (m/s)} |

a (Acceleration) | \text{meters per second squared (m/s}^2\text{)} |

t (Time) | \text{seconds (s)} |

m (Mass) | \text{kilograms (kg)} |

Variable | Derived SI Unit |
---|---|

F (Force) | \text{newtons (N)} |

E, PE, KE (Energy, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy) | \text{joules (J)} |

P (Power) | \text{watts (W)} |

p (Momentum) | \text{kilogram meters per second (kgm/s)} |

\omega (Angular Velocity) | \text{radians per second (rad/s)} |

\tau (Torque) | \text{newton meters (Nm)} |

I (Moment of Inertia) | \text{kilogram meter squared (kgm}^2\text{)} |

f (Frequency) | \text{hertz (Hz)} |

General Metric Conversion Chart

Conversion Example

Example of using unit analysis: Convert 5 kilometers to millimeters.

Start with the given measurement:

`\text{5 km}`

Use the conversion factors for kilometers to meters and meters to millimeters:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}}`

Perform the multiplication:

`\text{5 km} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{m}}{1 \, \text{km}} \times \frac{10^3 \, \text{mm}}{1 \, \text{m}} = 5 \times 10^3 \times 10^3 \, \text{mm}`

Simplify to get the final answer:

`\boxed{5 \times 10^6 \, \text{mm}}`

Prefix | Symbol | Power of Ten | Equivalent |
---|---|---|---|

Pico- | p | 10^{-12} | 0.000000000001 |

Nano- | n | 10^{-9} | 0.000000001 |

Micro- | µ | 10^{-6} | 0.000001 |

Milli- | m | 10^{-3} | 0.001 |

Centi- | c | 10^{-2} | 0.01 |

Deci- | d | 10^{-1} | 0.1 |

(Base unit) | – | 10^{0} | 1 |

Deca- or Deka- | da | 10^{1} | 10 |

Hecto- | h | 10^{2} | 100 |

Kilo- | k | 10^{3} | 1,000 |

Mega- | M | 10^{6} | 1,000,000 |

Giga- | G | 10^{9} | 1,000,000,000 |

Tera- | T | 10^{12} | 1,000,000,000,000 |

- Some answers may be slightly off by 1% depending on rounding, etc.
- Answers will use different values of gravity. Some answers use 9.81 m/s
^{2}, and other 10 m/s^{2 }for calculations. - Variables are sometimes written differently from class to class. For example, sometime initial velocity v_i is written as u ; sometimes \Delta x is written as s .
- Bookmark questions that you can’t solve so you can come back to them later.
- Always get help if you can’t figure out a problem. The sooner you can get it cleared up the better chances of you not getting it wrong on a test!

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